Posted on


Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 87-100

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 87-100.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, е-mail:

Mohammad TARIQ

Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Quetta, Pakistan


According to studies of the pelitic fraction of the water-insoluble residue of 10 samples of Eocene rock salt of the Bahadur Khel Formation (Pakistan), it was determined that the clay minerals association contains swelling chlorite, chlorite-smectite, illite and kaolinite; chlorite was identified in three samples. Non-clay minerals are represented by quartz, dolomite, less often – magnesite; one sample contains impurities of both carbonates. Swelling chlorite, chlorite and mixed-layer minerals are trioctahedral, and illite and kaolinite are dioctahedral. All identified clay minerals, with the exception of kaolinite, are authigenic.

The presence of swelling chlorite in Eocene rock salt is probably caused by changes in the concentration of brines in the basin against the background of complex geological processes of this era (climate change from thermal maximum to global cooling, changes in water circulation in oceans, changes in isotopic composition of carbonates).

The association of clay minerals of Eocene rock salt, taking into account the peculiarities of its composition and the presence of swelling chlorite in it, we attributed to that formed during the SO4-rich seawater chemical type. This is also confirmed by two finds of swelling chlorite in the Triassic evaporites (rock salt of the Western Moroccan Basin, Midland marl) described in the literature, which are known to have been deposited from SO4-rich seawater.

The presence of kaolinite in almost all samples is caused by its largest accumulation in sediments of this time period – terrigenous kaolinite came in large quantities from dry land and did not transform even at the stage halite precipitation.


clay minerals, swelling chlorite, rock salt, Eocene, Bahadur Khel Salt, Pakistan.


Bain, D. C., & Russell, J. D. (1981). Swelling minerals in a basalt and its weathering products from Morvern, Scotland: II. Swelling chlorite. Clay Miner., 16 (2), 203–212.

Bilonizhka, P. M. (1973). Nekotorye osobennosti mineral’nogo sostava glin nizhnemolasovykh otlozhenii Prikarpat’ya. In Voprosy litologii i petrografii (Kn. 2, s. 113–120). L’vov: Izdatel’stvo L’vovskogo universiteta. [in Russian]

Brindley, G. W. (1961). Chlorite minerals. In G. Brown (ed.), The X-ray identification and crystal structures of clay minerals (pp. 242–296). The Mineralogical Society, London.

Brindli, G. V. (1965). Khloritovye mineraly. In G. Braun (red.), Rentgenovskie metody izucheniya i struktura glinistykh mineralov. (V. A. Drits i dr., per. s angl.; V. A. Frank-Kamenetskii, red.) (s. 284–344). Moskva: Mir. [in Russian]

Carroll, D. (1970). Clay Minerals: A Guide to Their X-ray Identification (Special Paper 126). Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America.

Frank-Kamenetskii, V. A. (red.). (1983). Rentgenografiya osnovnykh tipov porodoobrazuyushchikh mineralov (sloistye i karkasnye silikaty). Leningrad: Nedra. [in Russian]

Frank-Kamenetskii, V. A., Kotov, N. V., & Goilo, E. L. (1983). Transformatsionnye preobrazovaniya sloistykh silikatov. Leningrad: Nedra. [in Russian]

Gavrilov, Yu. O., & Shcherbinina, E. A. (2004). Global’noe biosfernoe sobytie na granitse paleotsena i eotsena. In Yu. O. Gavrilov & M. D. Khutorskoi (red.), Sovremennye problemy geologii (s. 493–531). Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Hardie, L. A. (1996). Secular variation in seawater chemistry: An explanation for the coupled secular variation in the mineralogies of marine limestones and potash evaporites over the past 600 m. y. Geology, 24, 279–283.

Holland, H. D. (2003). The geologic history of seawater. Treatise on Geochemistry, 6, 583–625.

Honeyborne, D. B. (1951). The clay minerals in the Keuper marl. Clay min. Bull., 1 (5), 150–157.

Horita, J., Zimmermann, H., & Holland, H. D. (2002). Chemical evolution of seawater during the Phanerozoic: Implications from the record of marine evaporites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 3733–3756.

Jaumé, S. C., & Lillie, R. J. (1988). Mechanics of the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau, Pakistan: A fold-and-thrust belt underlain by evaporites. Tectonics, 7, 57–71.

Kazmi, A. H., & Jan, M. Q. (1997). Geology and Tectonics of Pakistan. Nazimabad; Karachi: Graphic Publishers.

Khrushcheva, M. O., & Nebera, T. S. (2019). Swelling clay minerals of bottom sediments of Uskol lake (Republic of Khakassia). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 319, Article 012010. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/319/1/012010

Kossovskaya, A. G., & Drits, V. A. (1975). Kristallokhimiya dioktaedricheskikh slyud, khloritov i korrensitov kak indikatorov geologicheskikh obstanovok. In Kristallokhimiya mineralov i geologicheskie problemy (s. 60–69). Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Kovalevich, V. M., & Vovnyuk, S. V. (2010). Vekovye variatsii khimizma morskikh evaporitovykh basseinov i vod Mirovogo okeana. Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Mirovogo okeana, 4, 50–64. [in Russian]

Kovalevych, V. M., Peryt, T. M., & Petrychenko, O. I. (1998). Secular variation in seawater chemistry during the Phanerozoic as indicated by brine inclusions in halite. The Journal of Geology, 106 (6), 695–712.

Krupskaya, V. V., Krylov, A. A., & Sokolov, V. N. (2011). Glinistye mineraly kak indikatory uslovii osadkonakopleniya na rubezhakh mel-paleotsen-eotsen na khrebte Lomonosova (Severnyi ledovityi okean). Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki, 2 (88), 23–35. [in Russian]

Lowenstein, T. K., Timofeeff, M. N., Brennan, S. T. et al. (2001). Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Science, 294, 1086–1088.

Lucas, J. (1962). La transformation des mineraux argileux dans la sedimentation. Etudes sur les argiles du Trias. Mem. Serv. Carte Geol. Als. et Lorraine, 20.

Meissner, C. R., Master J. M., Rashid, M. A., & Hussain, M. (1974). Stratigraphy of the Kohat Quadrangle, Pakistan. Geological survey professional paper, 716-D. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

Millo, Zh. (1968). Geologiya glin (vyvetrivanie, sedimentologiya, geokhimiya). (M. E. Kaplan, per. s frants.). Leningrad: Nedra. [in Russian]

Moore, D. M., & Reynolds, R. C. Jr. (1997). X-Ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Pastukhova, M. V. (1965). K poznaniyu autigennykh silikatnykh i alyumosilikatnykh mineralov v solenosnykh porodakh. Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye, 3, 78–90. [in Russian]

Premovi, P. I., Todorovi, B. Z., & Stankovi, M. N. (2008). Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (KPB) Fish Clay at Hjerup (Stevns Klint, Denmark): Ni, Co, and Zn of the black marl. Geologica Acta, 6 (4), 369–382.

Shah, S. M. I. (ed.). (1977). Memoirs of the geological survey of Pakistan. Vol. 12. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. Quetta

Sokolova, T. N. (1982). Autigennoe silikatnoe mineraloobrazovanie rannikh stadii osoloneniya. Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Strakhov, N. M. (1962). Osnovy teorii litogeneza. T. 3. Zakonomernosti sostava i razmeshcheniya aridnykh otlozhenii. Moskva: AN SSSR. [in Russian]

Suchecki, R. K., Perry, E. A., & Hubert, J. F. (1977). Clay Petrology of Cambro-Ordovician Continental Margin, Cow Head Klippe, Western Newfoundland. Clays and Clay Minerals, 25, 163–170.

Velde, B. (1977). A proposed phase diagram for illite, expanding chlorite, corrensite and illite-montmorillonite mixed layered minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals, 25, 264–270.

Weaver, C. E., & Beck, K. C. (Eds.). (1977). Developments in Sedimentology. Vol. 22. Miocene of the S.E. United States: A Model for Chemical Sedimentation in a Peri-Marine Environment. New York: Elsevier.

Yaremchuk, Ya. V. (2010). Hlynysti mineraly evaporytiv fanerozoiu ta yikhnia zalezhnist vid stadii zghushchennia rozsoliv i khimichnoho typu okeanichnoi vody. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Instytutu heolohichnykh nauk NAN Ukrainy, 3, 138–146. [in Ukrainian]

Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., Billups, K. (2001). Trends, Rhythms, and Aberrations in Global Climate 65 Ma to Present. Science, 292 (5517), 686–693.

Posted on


Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 76-86

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 76-86.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail:


Geochemical peculiarities of river and groundwaters of the Outer zone of the Precarpathian deep have been established. It is revealed that the main feature of the distribution of salt composition indicators in the Dniester River and its influxes is hydrochemical zonality, which does not depend on the flow direction of the rivers, but is consistent with the physics-geographical and geological features of the area to which the man-made factor is imposed.

There is an increase in concentrations of sulfate, calcium in the left bank confluent of the river Shchyrka. The waters from the Tysmenytsya, Kolodnitsa and Dniester rivers in the village Kolodrubi are characterized by the highest amounts of sodium and chlorides and are sodium chloride-hydrocarbonate composition. The water composition of the Dniester River (Rozvadiv village), its confluents Bystrytsia and Letnyanka are hydrocarbonate calcium (sodium-magnesium-calcium), Shchyrka, Vereshchitsa – sulfate-hydrocarbonate calcium (magnesium-calcium). The index of biochemical oxygen consumption for 5 days in the waters of Tysmenytsya River reached 4.5 mg O2/dm3, while in other rivers it was 0.70‒3.20 mg O2/dm3. The content of O2 soluble in the waters of the river Vereshchytsya was 0.29 mg/dm3, the value of biochemical oxygen consumption was 11.4 mg O2/dm3.

In the chemical composition of river waters, there is an increase in the concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions from the left bank to the right bank confluents of the Dniester. In the left-bank confluents, in the chemical composition of water dominate the contents of calcium and hydrocarbons ions.

The heterogeneity of the lithological composition, the instability of the thickness of the aquifer both in the horizontal and vertical directions, and the different technogenic influence form the irregularity of pollution and its local distribution in groundwater.


river waters, groundwaters, geochemical features, geochemical zonality, Outer zone, Precarpathian deep.


Babiienko, V. V., Levkovska, V. Yu., & Hanykina, S. O. (2017). Hihiienichna otsinka dzherel zabrudnennia richky Dnister [Hygienic evaluation of sources of pollution of the river Dniester]. Odeskyi medychnyi zhurnal, 4, 64–67. [in Ukrainian]

Herenchuk, K. I. (Red.). (1972). Pryroda Lvivskoi oblasti [Nature of Lviv region]. Lviv: Vyshcha shkola. Vydavnytstvo Lvivskoho universytetu. [in Ukrainian]

Hihiienichni vymohy do vody pytnoi, pryznachenoi dlia spozhyvannia liudynoiu [Hygienic requirements for drinking water intended for human habitation]. (2010). DSanPiN 2.2.4-171-10. Nakaz Ministerstva okhorony zdorovia Ukrainy N 400 vid 2010-05-12. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Ivaniuta, M. M. (red.). (1998). Atlas rodovyshch nafty i hazu Ukrainy. T. 4. Zakhidnyi naftohazonosnyi rehion [Atlas of Oil and Gas Fields of Ukraine. Vol. 4. Western Oil-and-Gas-Bearing Region]. Lviv: Tsentr Yevropy. [in Ukrainian]

Lototska, O. V. (2019). Hihiienichni problemy okhorony poverkhnevykh i pidzemnykh vod vid antropotekhnohennoho zabrudnennia ta yikh vykorystannia v pytnomu vodopostachanni v Zakhidnomu rehioni Ukrainy [Hygienic problems of protection of surface and underground waters from anthropotechnogenic pollution and their use in drinking water supply in the western region of Ukraine]. (Extended abstract of Doctor’s thesis, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, State Institution “O. M. Marzieiev Institute for Public Health NAMSU”). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Pankiv, R., Kost, M., Harasymchuk, V., Maikut, O., Mandzia, O., Sakhniuk, I., Kozak, R., & Palchykova, O. (2015). Heokhimichni osoblyvosti poverkhnevykh vod baseinu richky Dnister u mezhakh Ukrainy [Geochemical features of surface waters of the river Dniester basin within Ukraine]. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (166–167), 135–144. [in Ukrainian]

Perechen’ rybokhozyaistvennykh normativov: predel’no-dopustimykh kontsentratsii (PDK) i orientirovochno bezopasnykh urovnei veshchestv (OBUV) dlya vody vodnykh ob”ektov, imeyushchikh rybokhozyaistvennoe znachenie [List of fishery standards: maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) and tentatively safe levels of substances (TSEL) for water in water bodies of fishery importance]. (1999). Moskva: Izdatel’stvo VNIRO. [in Russian]

Rehionalna dopovid pro stan navkolyshnoho pryrodnoho seredovyshcha u Lvivskii oblasti v 2018 rotsi [Regional report on the state of the environment in the Lviv region in 2018]. (2019). Lviv. l7Tff6qc0/view [in Ukrainian]

Shtohryn, O. D., & Havrylenko, K. S. (1968). Pidzemni vody zakhidnykh oblastei Ukrainy [Groundwater of the western regions of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Zharkykh, M. I. (Red.). (1998). Doslidzhennia Dnistra: 10 rokiv hromadskoi ekolohichnoi ekspedytsii “Dnister” [Dniester research: 10 years of the public ecological expedition “Dniester”]. Lviv; Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Posted on


Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 76-86

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 76-86.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail:


Fundamental and applied achievements in the fields of geochemistry and thermobarometry of mineral-forming fluids and thermobarogeochemistry of evaporites are summarized as the basis of the corresponding world-famous scientific thermobarogeochemical schools established by professors V. A. Kalyuzhny and O. Yo. Petrychenko at the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the basis of creative development of ideas of predecessors with the support of academicians Ye. K. Lazarenko, V. S. Sobolyev, H. N. Dolenko. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of schools to geological science, which is determined by the formed knowledge base on geochemical and thermobaric parameters of fluid environments of mineral-ore- naphthidogenesis in the Earth’s lithosphere (according to data of fluid inclusions research). In this context, in view of the enormous array of available data, the composition, physicochemical properties, genesis of fluids of the upper mantle and crust are briefly discussed and it is shown that the course of processes of petro-, mineral-, ore-, naphthidogenesis and formation fields of hydrocarbon, ore and non-ore minerals is determined by the peculiarities of degassing (defluidization) of the Earth and its influence on the conversion of carbon compounds during terrigenous, organogenic, hemogenic sedimentation and on the processes of diagenesis of sediments of various origins. The obtained data on the reproduction of the evolution of the fluid regime of rock complexes contribute to solving the fundamental problem of geochemistry of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbon-hydrogen matter) and deep (endogenous) fluid flows in the Earth’s lithosphere as an important basis for mineralofluidological model of the planet. They played a decisive role in substantiating at the Institute on the basis of abiogenic-biogenic dualism universal approaches to the processes of synthesis and genesis of natural hydrocarbons in the form of a new fundamental paradigm of oil and gas geology and geochemistry, the polygenesis of natural hydrocarbons in the Earth’s bowels, which increases the potential of oil and gas resources of promising regions, including Ukraine. This creates the preconditions for the identification of promising rock complexes for hydrocarbon, ore and non-ore minerals by applying the obtained fundamental thermobarogeochemical data in forecasting, exploration and operational practice on the basis of developing of new non-traditional geotechnologies for assessment and exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals.


fluid inclusions, geochemistry, thermobarometry, fluids, fluid media, mineral-ore-naphthidogenesis, Earth’s lithosphere.


Bratus’, M. D., Davidenko, M. M., Zinchuk, I. M., Kalyuzhnyi, V. A., Matvienko, O. D., Naumko, I. M., Pirozhik, H. E., Red’ko, L. R., & Svoren’, Yo. M. (1994). Fluid regime in mineral formation in lithosphere (in relation to prognosis in prospecting for economic deposits), Fluid inclusion research: Proceedings оf COFFІ, USA, 27, 173–174.

Bratus, M. D., Davydenko, M. M., Zinchuk, I. M., Kaliuzhnyi, V. A., Matviienko, O. D., Naumko, I. M., Pirozhyk, N. E., Redko, L. R., & Svoren, Y. M. (1994). Fliuidnyi rezhym mineraloutvorennia v litosferi (v zviazku z prohnozuvanniam korysnykh kopalyn). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Chekalyuk, E. B. (1980). Problema genezisa nefti s pozitsii geotermodinamiki. In Teoreticheskie voprosy neftegazovoi geologii (s. 13–20). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Davidenko, N. M. (1992). Istochniki zolotonosnykh rossypei kriolitozony severo-vostoka Azii (po flyuidnym vklyucheniyam v mineralakh). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Dolenko, G. N. (1986). Proiskhozhdenie nefti i gaza i neftegazonakoplenie v zemnoi kore. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Ermakov, N. P. (1950). Issledovaniya mineraloobrazuyushchikh rastvorov (temperatury i agregatnoe sostoyanie). Khar’kov: Izdatel’stvo Khar’kovskogo universiteta. [in Russian]

Ermakov, N. P. (1972). Geokhimicheskie sistemy vklyuchenii v mineralakh (vklyucheniya mineraloobrazuyushchikh sred – istochnik geneticheskoi informatsii). Moskva: Nedra. [in Russian]

Ermakov, N. P., & Dolgov, Yu. A. (1979). Termobarogeokhimiya. Moskva: Nedra. [in Russian]

Kadik, A. A. (1986). Fraktsionirovanie letuchikh komponentov pri plavlenii verkhnei mantii. Geologiya i geofizika, 7, 70–73. [in Russian]

Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (1960). Metody doslidzhennia bahatofazovykh vkliuchen u mineralakh. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo AN URSR. [in Ukrainian]

Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (Red.). (1971). Mineraloutvoriuiuchi fliuidy ta parahenezysy mineraliv pehmatytiv zanoryshevoho typu Ukrainy (ridki vkliuchennia, termobarometriia, heokhimiia). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Kalyuzhnyi, V. A. (1982). Osnovy ucheniya o mineraloobrazuyushchikh flyuidakh. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kalyuzhnyi, V. A. (1983). Problemy issledovaniya endogennykh (mineraloobrazuyushchikh) flyuidov po vklyucheniyam v mineralakh. Geologiya i geokhimiya goryuchikh iskopaemykh, 2, 73–78. [in Russian]

Kalyuzhnyi, V. A. (1988). Osnovnye dostizheniya i perspektivy razvitiya ucheniya o mineraloobrazuyushchikh flyuidakh (voprosy termobarometrii i geokhimii rudoobrazuyushchikh flyuidov). In Geokhimiya i termobarometriya endogennykh flyuidov (s. 3–10). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kalyuzhnyi, V. A., Vynar, O. N., Zinchuk, I. N., Kovalishin, Z. I., & Matvienko, A. D. (1987). Geokhimicheskaya spetsializatsiya endogennykh mineraloobrazuyushchikh flyuidov i poiskovye kriterii na poleznye iskopaemye. Mineralogicheskii sbornik L’vovskogo universiteta, 41 (2), 54–58. [in Russian]

Khokha, Yu., Yakovenko, M., & Liubchak, O. (2019). Termodynamika transformatsii kerohenu II typu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3 (180), 25–40. [in Ukrainian]

Kovalevich, V. M. (1978). Fiziko-khimicheskie usloviya formirovaniya Stebnikskogo kaliinogo mestorozhdeniya. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kovalevich, V. M. (1990). Galogenez i khimicheskaya evolyutsiya okeana v fanerozoe. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kovalevich, V. M., Peryt, T. M., & Petrichenko, O. I. (1998). Secular variation in seawater chemistry during the Phanerozoic as indicated by brine inclusions in halite. Journal of Geology, 106, 695–712.

Kovalevych, V., Dudok, I., Poberezhskyi, A., Vovniuk, S., Halamai, A., Hryniv, S., Lytvyniuk, C., Sydor, D., & Yaremchuk, Ya. (2012). Khimiko-paleookeanohrafichni indykatory prohnozu pokladiv vuhlevodniv ta korysnykh kopalyn u vidkladakh kontynentalnykh okrain (za rezultatamy mineraloho-heokhimichnykh doslidzhen sulfatno-karbonatnykh i solenosnykh tovshch fanerozoiu Tsentralnoi i Skhidnoi Yevropy). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (160–161), 66–81. [in Ukrainian]

Kovalishin, Z. I., & Bratus’, M. D. (1984). Flyuidnyi rezhim gidrotermal’nykh protsessov Zakarpat’ya. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Lazarenko, E. K. (1979). Opyt geneticheskoi klassifikatsii mineralov. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Liakhov, Yu., Matkovskyi, O., Pavlun, M., & Sivoronov, A. (2013). Profesor Mykola Porfirovych Yermakov – teoretyk i zasnovnyk novoi haluzi heolohichnykh znan – termobaroheokhimii (do 100-richchia vid dnia narodzhennia). Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 63 (2), 4–13. [in Ukrainian]

Lukin, A. E., & Pikovskii, Yu. I. (2004). O roli glubinnykh i sverkhglubinnykh flyuidov v nefteobrazovanii. Geologicheskii zhurnal, 2, 21–33. [in Russian]

Matkovskyi, O., Naumko, I., & Pavlun, M. (2017). Termobaroheokhimichna shkola profesora Mykoly Yermakova ta yii vnesok u rozvytok henetychnoi mineralohii y uchennia pro rodovyshcha korysnykh kopalyn. Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 67 (1), 3–37. [in Ukrainian]

Matkovskyi, O., Naumko, I., & Pavlun, M. (2018a). Etapy ta periody rozvytku termobaroheokhimichnykh doslidzhen v Ukraini. Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 68 (1), 129–134. [in Ukrainian]

Matkovskyi, O. I., Naumko, I. M., & Pavlun, M. M. (2018b). Termobaroheokhimiia v Ukraini. In Heolohiia i korysni kopalyny Ukrainy (s. 142–145). Kyiv: IHMR NAN Ukrainy. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M. (2006). Fliuidnyi rezhym mineralohenezu porodno-rudnykh kompleksiv Ukrainy (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh typovykh parahenezysiv). (Extended abstract of Doctorʼs thesis). Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. (2011). Mineralofliuidolohiia v Instytuti heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (154–155), 114–115. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. (2017). Vnesok akademika Hryhoriia Nazarovycha Dolenka u rozvytok termobaroheokhimii–mineralofliuidolohii v Instytuti heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (170–171), 120–121. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. (2019). Pro litofliuidotermodynamichnu systemu v heolohii i heokhimii. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2 (179), 28–36. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., Bekesha, S. M., & Svoren, Y. M. (2008). Fliuidy hlybynnykh horyzontiv litosfery: zviazok z rodovyshchamy nafty i hazu u zemnii kori (za danymy vyvchennia vkliuchen u mineralakh hlybynnoho pokhodzhennia). Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 8, 117–120. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Bratus, M., Dudok, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Kovalyshyn, Z., Sakhno, B., Svoren, Y., & Telepko, L. (2004). Fliuidnyi rezhym katahenno-hidrotermalnoho protsesu periodu formuvannia zhylnoi, prozhylkovoi i prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii v osadovykh tovshchakh. In V. V. Kolodii (Red.), Karpatska naftohazonosna provintsiia (s. 308–345). Lviv; Kyiv: Ukrainskyi vydavnychyi tsentr. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Bratus, M., Zinchuk, I., Svoren, Y., Batsevych, N., Vovk, O., Zankovych, H., Redko, L., Sakhno, B., Beletska, Yu., Druchok, L., Matviishyn, Z., Telepko, L., Bondar, R., Brynskyi, T., Zubyk, M., Sava, N., & Stepaniuk, V. (2019). Letki spoluky fliuidnykh vkliuchen i zakrytykh por porid yak vazhlyvyi pokaznyk fliuidonasychenosti nadr (na prykladi porodno-rudnykh kompleksiv Ukrainy). In Heofizyka i heodynamika: prohnozuvannia ta monitorynh heolohichnoho seredovyshcha (s. 134–136). Lviv: Rastr-7. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., & Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (2001). Pidsumky ta perspektyvy doslidzhen termobarometrii i heokhimii paleofliuidiv litosfery (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2, 162–175. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Bratus, M., Zinchuk, I., Kovalyshyn, Z., Matviienko, O., Redko, L., & Svoren, Y. (2000). Uchennia pro mineralotvorni fliuidy: priorytetni zavdannia rozvytku na suchasnomu etapi. Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 50 (2), 22–30. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Svoren, Y., Zinchuk, I., Bekesha, S., Redko, L., Sakhno, B., Druchok, L., Telepko, L., Beletska, Yu., Matviishyn, Z., Sava, N., Bondar, R., & Stepaniuk, V. (2007). Fliuidy postsedymentohennykh protsesiv v osadovykh ta osadovo-vulkanohennykh verstvakh pivdenno-zakhidnoi okrainy Skhidnoievropeiskoi platformy i prylehlykh heostruktur (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4, 63–94. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, І. М., Kovalyshyn, Z. I., Svoren’, J. M., Sakhno, B. Е., & Telepko, L. F. (1999). Towards forming conditions of veinlet mineralization in sedimentary oil- and gas- bearing layers of Carpathian region (obtained by data of fluid inclusions research). Геологія і геохімія горючих копалин, 3 (108), 83–91.

Naumko, І. М., Кurovets’, І. М., Zubyk, М. І., Batsevych, N. V., Sakhno, B. Е., & Chepusenko, P. S. (2017). Hydrocarbon compounds and plausible mechanism of gas generation in “shale” gas prospective Silurian deposits of Lviv Paleozoic depression. Geodynamics, 1 (22), 26–41.

Naumko, I. M., Pavliuk, M. I., Svoren, Y. M., & Zubyk, M. I. (2015). Metan hazovuhilnykh rodovyshch – potuzhne dodatkove dzherelo vuhlevodniv v Ukraini. Visnyk NAN Ukrainy, 6, 43–54. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., Pavliuk, M. I., Svoren, Y. M., & Zubyk, M. I. (2016). Hazy vuhilnykh rodovyshch: nove vyrishennia problemy syntezu–henezysu metanu. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 3, 61–68. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., & Svoren’, I. M. (2003). O vazhnosti glubinnogo vysokotemperaturnogo flyuida v sozdanii uslovii dlya formirovaniya mestorozhdenii prirodnykh uglevodorodov v zemnoi kore. In Novye idei v naukakh o Zemle: Materialy VI Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii (Moskva, 8–12 aprelya 2003 g.) (T. 1, s. 249). Moskva. [in Russian]

Naumko, І., & Svoren’, Yo. (2010). Abiogenic-biogenic bases of the genesis and synthesis of natural hydrocarbons in the Earth’s lithosphere (by fluid inclusions research). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74 (11, Suppl. 1), A747.

Naumko, I., & Svoren, Y. (2014). Novi tekhnolohii poshukiv korysnykh kopalyn, osnovani na doslidzhenniakh fliuidnykh vkliuchen u mineralakh. V Aktual’nye problemy poiskovoi i ekologicheskoi geokhimii: Sbornik tezisov Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii (Kiev, 1–2 iyulya 2014 g.) (s. 23–25). Kiev: Іnterservіs. [in Ukrainian]

Pavliuk, M. I. (2014). Heodynamichna evoliutsiia ta naftohazonosnit Azovo-Chornomorskoho i Barentsevomorskoho perykontynentalnykh shelfiv. Lviv: PROMAN. [in Ukrainian]

Pavliuk, M. I. (2017). Heotektonichna evoliutsiia i naftohazonosnyi potentsial Ukrainy (stenohrama naukovoi dopovidi na zasidanni Prezydii NAN Ukrainy 5 lypnia 2017 r.). Visnyk NAN Ukrainy, 9, 11–21. [in Ukrainian]

Pavlyshyn, V. I., Bondarenko, S. M., Bryk, O. B., Vozniak, D. K., Ilchenko, K. O., Kalinichenko, A. M., Kvasnytsia, V. M., Kulchytska, H. O., Lukashko, T. M., Naumko, I. M., Semenenko, V. P., Taran, M. M., Tarashchan, A. M., Khomenko, V. M., & Chernysh, D. S. (2018). Mineralohiia u Natsionalnii akademii nauk Ukrainy (do 100-richchia NAN Ukrainy). Mineralohichnyi zhurnal, 40 (3), 3–22. 40.03.003 [in Ukrainian]

Pavlyuk, M. I., Varichev, S. A., & Rizun, B. P. (2003). Novye predstavleniya o genezise nefti i gaza i formirovanii neftegazonosnykh provinnii. In Genezis nefti i gaza (s. 441–442). Moskva: GEOS. [in Russian]

Petrichenko, O. I. (1977). Atlas mikrovklyuchenii v mineralakh galogennykh porod. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Petrichenko, O. I. (1988). Fiziko-khimicheskie usloviya osadkoobrazovaniya v drevnikh solerodnykh basseinakh. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Petrichenko, O. I. (1989). Epigenez evaporitov. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Petrychenko, O. Y. (1973). Metody doslidzhennia vkliuchen u mineralakh halohennykh porid. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Petrychenko, O., Kovalevych, V., Poberezhskyi, A., Vovniuk, S., Halamai, A., Dudok, I., Hryniv, S., Khmelevska, O., Sydor, D., Yaremchuk, Ya., Oliiovych, O., & Lytvyniuk, C. (2006). Vikovi zminy khimichnoho skladu okeanichnoi vody ta yikhnii vplyv na formuvannia halohennykh i bituminoznykh vidkladiv. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4, 97–118. [in Ukrainian]

Poberezhskyi, A. V., & Kovalevych, V. M. (2001). Khimichnyi sklad morskoi vody v kainozoi (za rezultatamy doslidzhennia vkliuchen u sedymentatsiinomu haliti). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2, 90–109. [in Ukrainian]

Roedder, E. (1984). Fluid inclusions. Reviews in Mineralogy (Vol. 12). Virginia: Mineralogical Society of America.

Shestopalov, V. M., Lukin, A. E., Zgonnik, V. A., Makarenko, A. N., Larin, N. V., & Boguslavskii, A. S. (2018). Ocherki degazatsii Zemli. Kiev. [in Russian]

Smit, F. G. (1956). Geologicheskaya termometriya po vklyucheniyam v mineralakh. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo inostrannoi literatury. [in Russian]

Sorby, H. C. (1858). On the Microscopic, Structure of Crystals, Indicating the Origin of Minerals and Rocks. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 14 (1), 453–500.

Svoren, Y. M., & Naumko, I. M. (2006). Nova teoriia syntezu i henezysu pryrodnykh vuhlevodniv: abiohenno-biohennyi dualizm. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 2, 111–116. [in Ukrainian]

Vovniuk, S., Halamai, A., Hryniv, S., Dudok, I., Maksymuk, S., Poberezhskyi, A., Sydor, D., & Yaremchuk, Ya. (2017). Heokhimichni kryterii zviazku evaporytovykh i osadovykh formatsii fanerozoiu ta pokladiv vuhlevodniv (na prykladi naftohazonosnykh baseiniv Tsentralnoi i Skhidnoi Yevropy). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (172–173), 56–75. [in Ukrainian]

Vozniak, D. K. (2005). Rozvytok v Ukraini vchennia pro fliuidni vkliuchennia v mineralakh. Zapysky Ukrainskoho mineralohichnoho tovarystva, 2, 34–43. [in Ukrainian]

Vozniak, D. K., Kulchytska, H. O., Chernysh, D. S., & Belskyi, V. M. (2019). Nauka pro fliuidni vkliuchennia u mineralakh v Ukraini (do 100-richchia NAN Ukrainy). Mineralohichnyi zhurnal, 41 (1), 23–34. [in Ukrainian]

Vynar, O. M., Kaliuzhnyi, V. A., Naumko, I. M., & Matviienko, O. D. (1987). Mineraloutvoriuiuchi fliuidy postmahmatychnykh utvoren hranitoidiv Ukrainskoho shchyta. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Zinchuk, I. N., Kalyuzhnyi, V. A., & Shchiritsa, A. S. (1984). Flyuidnyi rezhim mineraloobrazovaniya Tsentral’nogo Donbassa. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Posted on


Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 52-61

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 52-61.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Yurii KHOKHA, Oleksandr LYUBCHAK, Myroslava YAKOVENKO, Dmytro BRYK

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv


This paper considers the issue of determining the maximum hydrocarbons amount that can be generated by kerogen using thermodynamic methods. It is shown that the chemical composition of natural gas or gas condensate contains information about the generative capacity of kerogen from which it was formed. Based on experiments of type II and I kerogen pyrolysis and thermodynamic calculations by entropy maximization method, we propose a new method for determining the amount of kerogen from which gas was formed, which contains 1 dm3 of methane at a given ratio of butane isomers. The obtained data are interpreted as an indicator of kerogen maturity in the context of the depth of its destruction.

This method is applied to theWestern oil and gas region of Ukraine hydrocarbon deposits. The analysis of kerogen transformations in the region sedimentary strata, using criteria of the GASTAR diagram, is carried out. We assessed the trends of kerogen conversion in the region in the areas of “maturity” and “biodegradation” in the ratio of ethane/propane (C2/C3) to ethane/isobutane (C2/i-C4). It is shown that the majority of deposits in the Western oil and gas region developed in the direction of maturation and only a small group of gas deposits – biodegradation.

To establish the gases genesis in the region, we built a graph of the two geochemical indicators dependence – the methane/ethane ratio (C1/C2) and ethane/propane ratio (C2/C3). It is shown that some of the gas fields is formed due to the conversion of organic material of oil deposits. At the same time, gas condensate fields in the region, with few exceptions, are formed due to the primary destruction of kerogen.

Based on the results of the calculations, maps of the methane (generated by type II kerogen) amount distribution were constructed. It is established that kerogen, which was the source material for hydrocarbon deposits of Boryslav-Pokuts oil and gas region, has practically exhausted its gas generation potential. Instead, kerogen from gas and gas condensate fields in the Bilche-Volytska oil and gas district still retains the potential to generate hydrocarbons.


kerogen, butane isomers, thermodynamic modelling, gas-generating potential.


Behar, F., Beaumont, V., & Penteado, H. L. De B. (2001). Rock-Eval 6 Technology: Performances and Developments. Oil & Gas Science and Technology – Rev. IFP, 56 (2), 111–134.

Gai, H., Tian, H., & Xiao, X. (2018). Late gas generation potential for different types of shale source rocks: Implications from pyrolysis experiments. International Journal of Coal Geology, 193, 16–29.

Ivaniuta, M. M. (Red.). Atlas rodovyshch nafty i hazu Ukrainy (T. 4–5). (1998). Lviv: Tsentr Yevropy. [in Ukrainian]

Khokha, Yu., Liubchak, O., & Yakovenko, M. (2018). Vplyv temperaturnoho rezhymu na hazoheneratsiinyi potentsial huminovykh kyslot orhanichnoi rechovyny. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (176–177), 37–47. [in Ukrainian]

Khokha, Yu., Liubchak, O., & Yakovenko, M. (2019). Termodynamika transformatsii kerohenu II typu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3 (180), 25–40. [in Ukrainian]

Langford, F. F., & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (1990). Interpreting Rock-Eval pyrolysis data using graphs of pyrolizable hydrocarbons vs. total organic carbon. AAPG Bulletin, 74 (6), 799–804.

Li, J., Li, Z., Wang, X., Wang, D., Xie, Z., Li, J., Wang, Y., Han, Z., Ma, C., Wang, Z., Cui, H., Wang, R., & Hao A. (2017). New indexes and charts for genesis identification of multiple natural gases. Petroleum Exploration and Development, 44 (4), 535–543.

Magnier, C., & Huc, A. Y. (1995). Pyrolysis of asphaltenes as a tool for reservoir geochemistry. Organic Geochemistry, 23 (10), 963–967.

Peters, K. E. (1986). Guidelines for Evaluating Petroleum Source Rock Using Programmed Pyrolysis. AAPG Bulletin, 70 (3), 318–329.

Prinzhofer, A., Mello, M. R., & Takaki, T. (2000). Geochemical Characterization of Natural Gas: A Physical Multivariable Approach and its Applications in Maturity and Migration Estimates. AAPG Bulletin, 84 (8), 1152–1172.

Tisso, B., & Vel’te, D. (1981). Obrazovanie i rasprostranenie nefti. Moskva: Mir. [in Russian]

Wood, J. M., & Sanei, H. (2016). Secondary migration and leakage of methane from a major tight-gas system. Nature Communications, 7, Article 13614. 10.1038/ncomms13614

Posted on

COLLISION DEFORMATIONS OF THE DNIEPER-DONETS DEPRESSION Article 3. Geodynamic model of tectonic inversion

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 40-51

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 40-51.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті


Ukrainian Research Institute of Natural Gases, Kharkiv, e-mail: alekseybart@gmail.соm


The article concludes the trilogy on post-strip deformations of the Dnieper-Donets Basin. The results of tectonophysical analysis of collision deformations of the platform cover of the south-eastern part of the Dnieper-Donets Basin are summarized. Using the original method of reconstruction of stress and strain fields and tectonophysical analysis of geostructures, the system organization of inversion structural deformations of the Dnieper-Donets Basin and Donbass was studied.

The tectonic inversion of the Dnieper-Donets Basin began in the Late Hercynian epoch in the situation of a general-plate collision under the influence of the inversion rise of the Donbas. Structural and kinematic analysis of deformations shows that the folds in the depression and linear anti- and synforms of the Donets Foldbelt were formed by the natural mechanism of longitudinal bending as a result of collisional warping of horizons in the geodynamic mode of transformation. In the late Mesozoic–­­Cenozoic inversion continued in the field of right-hand horizontal-shear deformations with a variable compressive component. This mode caused the advancing and pushing of sedimentary geomass from the Donets Foldbelt to the Hercynian neo-autochthonous and syneclise autochthonous of the South-Eastern Dnieper-Donets Basin. Due to the influence of the tectonic stamp of the Donets Foldbelt, the West Donets wedge-shaped segment was formed – the orocline of geomass tectonic wedging. Geodynamic bands of injection and displacement of sedimentary geomass were formed in the front of the invasion and in the axial zone of the orocline, where the main folded zones were formed. In Forland, at the ends of the main thrusts – “tectonic rails” of the wedging, an advanced scaly compression fan was formed. In the hinterland of the orocline, folded suture zones are formed by the roots of the covers of thrusting.

The original geodynamic model of tectonic inversion provides for the destruction of the riftogenic structure in the Southeast of the Dnieper-Donets Basin by thrusting echelons of scaly covers and coulisses-articulated upliftt-folding. They compose a segment of the insertion of the geomasses of the Paleozoic cover into the territory of the West Donets Graben from the side of the Donets Foldbelt. The intrusion of the tectonic segment led to the formation of an inversion structure of a regional scale – the West Donets Cover-Folded Region.


geodynamic model, tectonic inversion, waves of longitudinal deformations, West-Donets Cover-Folded Region.


Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019a). Horyzontalni peremishchennia heomasyviv u kontynentalnykh ryftohennykh heostrukturakh (na prykladi Dniprovskoho-Donetskoho paleoryfta). Chastyna 3. Systemna orhanizatsiia postryftovykh reidnykh deformatsii. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni V. N. Karazina. Seriia “Heolohiia. Heohrafiia. Ekolohiia”, 51, 26‒40. [in Ukrainian]

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019b). Evoliutsiia napruzheno-deformovanoho stanu zemnoi kory Dniprovsko-Donetskoho paleoryftu u fanerozoi. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 3, 62–71. [in Ukrainian]

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019c). Koliziini deformatsii ryftohennoi struktury Dniprovsko-Donetskoi zapadyny. Stattia 1. Tektonika zony zchlenuvannia z Donetskoiu skladchastoiu sporudoiu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3 (180), 77‒90. [in Ukrainian]

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019d). Koliziini deformatsii ryftohennoi struktury Dniprovsko-Donetskoi zapadyny. Stattia 2. Kinematychni mekhanizmy tektonichnoi inversii. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4 (181), 1‒13. [in Ukrainian]

Dudnik, V. A., & Korchemagin, V. A. (2004). Kimmeriiskoe pole napryazhenii v predelakh Ol’khovatsko-Volyntsevskoi antiklinali Donbassa, ego svyaz’ s razryvnymi strukturami i magmatizmom. Geofizicheskii zhurnal, 26 (4), 75‒84. [in Russian]

Gintov, O. B. (2005). Polevaya tektonofizika i ee primenenie pri izuchenii deformatsii zemnoi kory Ukrainy. Kiev: Feniks. [in Russian]

Glushko, V. (Red.). (1978). Glubinnye geologicheskie srezy Dneprovsko-Donetskoi vpadiny (v svyazi s perspektivami neftegazonosnosti). Ob”yasnitel’naya zapiska k geologicheskim kartam DDV na srezakh ‒5000 i ‒6000 m masshtaba 1 : 500 000. Kiev: UKRNIIGAZ, UKRNIGRI. [in Russian]

Gonchar, V. V. (2019). Tektonicheskaya inversiya Dneprovsko-Donetskoi vpadiny i Donbassa (modeli i rekonstruktsii). Geofizicheskii zhurnal, 41 (5), 47‒86. [in Russian]

Horiainov, S., & Skliarenko, Yu. (Vidp. vyk.). (2017). Prohnoz lokalizatsii ta hazonos-nos­ti litolohichnykh pastok pivdennoho skhodu DDZ v mezhakh litsenziinykh dilianok HPU “Shebelynkahazvydobuvannia” (Ch. 1. Stvorennia strukturno-heolohichnoi osnovy). (Dohovir № 100 ShHV 2017-2017 (tema № 34.521/2017-2017)). Kharkiv: UkrNDIhaz. [in Ukrainian]

Istomin, A. N. (1996). Geodinamicheskaya model’ formirovaniya Donetskogo skladchatogo sooruzheniya na osnove idei tektoniki litosfernykh plit v svyazi s otsenkoi perspektiv neftegazonosnosti. In Nafta i haz Ukrainy‒96: materialy naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii (T. 1, s. 176‒180). Kharkiv: UkrNDIHaz. [in Russian]

Khain, V. E. (1977). Regional’naya geotektonika. Vneal’piiskaya Evropa i Zapadnaya Aziya (s. 185‒205). Moskva: Nedra. [in Russian]

Korchemagin, V. A., & Emets, V. S. (1987). Osobennosti razvitiya tektonicheskoi struktury i polya napryazhenii Donbassa i Vostochnogo Priazov’ya. Geotektonika, 3, 49‒55. [in Russian]

Korchemagin, V. A., & Ryaboshtan, Yu. S. (1987). Tektonika i polya napryazhenii Donbassa. In Polya napryazhenii i deformatsii v zemnoi kore (s. 167‒170) Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Kruhlov, S. S., & Hurskyi, D. S. (Red.). (2007). Tektonichna karta Ukrainy. Masshtab 1 : 1 000 000. Ministerstvo okhorony navkolyshnoho pryrodnoho seredovyshcha Ukrainy. Derzhavna heolohichna sluzhba Ukrainy. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Krylov, N. (Red.). (1988). Karta razryvnykh narushenii i osnovnykh zon lineamentov yugo-zapada SSSR (s ispol’zovaniem materialov kosmicheskoi s”emki) masshtab 1 : 1 000 000. Moskva: Ministerstvo geologii SSSR. [in Russian]

Lukinov, V. V., & Pimonenko, L. I. (2008). Tektonika metanougol’nykh mestorozhdenii Donbassa. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Maidanovich, I. A., & Radzivill, A. Ya. (1984). Osobennosti tektoniki ugol’nykh basseinov Ukrainy. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Mikhalev, A. K., & Borodulin, M. I. (1976). O glubinnoi strukuture Donetskogo baseina v svete sovremennykh geofizicheskikh dannykh. Geotektonika, 4, 39‒54. [in Russian]

Milanovskii, E. E., & Nikishin, A. M. (1991). Modeli kharaktera deformatsii pri szhatii kontinental’nykh riftogennykh progibov. In Riftogeny i poleznye iskopaemye (s. 3‒15). Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Polivtsev, A. V. (Vidp. vyk.). (2008). Skladannia atlasu heoloho-heofizychnykh kart prykordonnykh terytorii Ukrainy (mizhnarodnyi proekt): zvit pro NDR 654 (zakliuchnyi). Ukrainskyi derzhavnyi heolohorozviduvalnyi instytut. Kyiv, 2008. [in Ukrainian]

Popov, V. S. (1963). Donetskii basein: tektonika. In Geologiya mestorozhdenii uglya i goryuchikh slantsev SSSR (T. 1, s. 103‒151). Moskva: GONTI. [in Russian]

Turcotte, D. L. (1974). Membrane Tectonics. Geophysical Journal International, 36 (1), 33‒42.

Posted on


Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 5-39

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 5-39.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Volodymyr SHLAPINSKY, Myroslav PAVLYUK, Myroslav TERNAVSKY

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail:


The paper gives a critical appreciation of a number of principles containing in materials of the State geological map at a scale of 1 : 200 000 (Carpathian series of sheets) published in 2003–2009. Its scientific and practical value is recognized as a source of knowledge of the structure and natural resources of the Carpathians. At the same time, numerous inaccuracies are noted in the sphere of stratigraphy and tectonics, but revealed in the reviewed work. This was negatively depicted on the quality of geological and tectonical maps of the Folded Carpathians, presented in it, that in its turn may have an influence on the appreciation of the prospects of oil and gas presence in the region, may be not for the best. On the basis of the analysis of considerable amount of factual material, including that one received after the publication of State geological map – 200, the authors have corrected revealed defects. The attention was paid to the possibility to create the latest, more perfect map of the Outer Carpathians at a scale of 1 : 100 000. Its base version is already existent.


Folded Outer Carpathians, stratigraphy and tectonics, legend of the State geological map – 200, tectonics regioning, nappes, subnappes.


Andreeva-Grigorovich, A. S., Gruzman, A. D., & Dosin, G. D. (1981). K voprosu o granitse oligotsena i miotsena Pokutsko-Bukovinskikh Karpat. In Materialy XII kongressa KBGA (s. 57–58). Kiev. [in Russian]

Andreeva-Grigorovich, A. S., Vyalov, O. S., Gavura, S. P. i dr. (1984). Ob”yasnitel’naya zapiska k regional’noi stratigraficheskoi skheme paleogenovykh otlozhenii Ukrainskikh Karpat. Kiev: IGN USSR. (Preprint / Institut geologicheskikh nauk AN USSR; 84–19). [in Russian]

Andreieva-Hryhorovych, A. S., Vashchenko, V. O., Hnylko, O. M., & Trofimovych, N. A. (2011). Stratyhrafiia neohenovykh vidkladiv Ukrainskykh Karpat ta Peredkarpatskoho prohynu. Tektonika i stratyhrafiia, 38, 67–77. [in Ukrainian]

Andrieieva-Hryhorovych, A. S., Hruzman, A. D., Kulchytskyi, Ya. O. ta in. (1995). Skhema stratyhrafii neohenovykh vidkladiv Zakhidnoho (Tsentralnoho) Paratetysu v mezhakh Ukrainy. Paleontolohichnyi zbirnyk, 31, 8–88. [in Ukrainian]

Babinets, A. E., Burov, V. S., Vyalov, O. S. i dr. (1958). Putevoditel’ ekskursii S”ezda Karpato-Balkanskoi assotsiatsii, sentyabr’ 1958 g. L’vov: Izdatel’stvo L’vovskogo universiteta. [in Russian]

Bucur, J. (1971). Observatii privind nomenclatura tectonică in flischul cretacic si paleogen din Carpatii Orientali. Dări de seamă ale sedintelor. Inst. geol. (1969–1970), 57 (5), 23–32.

Burov, V. S., Vishnyakov, I. B., Glushko, V. V. i dr. (1986). Tektonika Ukrainskikh Karpat. Ob”yasnitel’naya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte Ukrainskikh Karpat. M-b 1 : 200 000. Kiev. [in Russian]

Dabagyan, N. V., Kul’chitskii, Ya. O., & Lozynyak, P. Yu. (1967). Geologicheskoe stroenie i stratigrafiya mela Rakhovskoi zony. In Doklady VII kongressa KBGA (T. 1, s. 283–287). Belgrad. [in Russian]

Danysh, V. V. (1994). Deiaki problemy heolohii Ukrainskykh Karpat. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (86–87), 163–169. [in Ukrainian]

Danysh, V., Hnylko, O., Pavlyuk, M., Tsarnenko, P., Jankowski, L., Kopciowski, R., Ryłko, W., Anastasiu, N., Dragan, E., Popa, M., & Roban, R. (2007). Geological Map of the Outer Carpathians: Borderland of Ukraine and Romania. 1 : 200 000. Warsaw: Polish Geological Institute.

Dosyn, H. D. (1964). Vulkanichni tufy v krosnenskykh vidkladakh Ukrainskykh Karpat. Heolohycheskyi zhurnal, 24 (2), 63–67. [in Russian]

Geologicheskoe stroenie i goryuchie iskopaemye Sovetskikh Karpat. (1971). Trudy UkrNIGRI, 25. [in Russian]

Glushko, V. V., Kul’chitskii, Ya. O., & Myshkin, L. P. (1982). Analiz i obobshchenie geologo-geofizicheskikh materialov po Predkarpatskomu progibu s tsel’yu vyyavleniya zakonomernostei razmeshcheniya srednikh po zapasam mestorozhdenii nefti i gaza i opredeleniya glavnykh napravlenii rabot (Gi 22-80) (s. 299). L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Gofshtein, I. D. (1953). O cheshue Meletta iz chernykh slantsev Zakarpat’ya. Trudy L’vovskogo geologicheskogo obshchestvava. Seriya paleontologicheskaya, 2, 99–110. [in Russian]

Gruzman, A. D. (1972). Raspredelenie melkikh foraminifer v oligotsenovykh otlozheniyakh severo-zapadnoi chasti Ukrainskikh Karpat. Paleontologicheskii sbornik, 9 (1), 17–22. [in Russian]

Gruzman, A. D. (1983). Foraminifery i stratigrafiya oligotsena i nizhnego miotsena Ukrainskikh Karpat. (Extended abstract of candidateʼs thesis). Kiev. [in Russian]

Haczewski, G. (1989). Poziomy wapieni kokkolitowych w serii menilitowo-krośnieńskiej – rozróżnianie, korelacja i geneza. Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 59 (3–4), 435–523.

Jankowski, L., Kopciowski, R., Ryłko, W., Danysh, V., Tsarnenko, P., Janocko, J., & Jacko, S. (2004). Geological Map of the Outer Carpathians: Borderlands of Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia. 1 : 200 000. Warsaw: Polish Geological Institute.

Kantolinskii, S. I. (1972). Razrabotka rekomendatsii po napravleniyu poiskovo-razvedochnykh rabot na yugo-zapadnom sklone Vostochnykh Karpat v r-ne Svalyava-Voditsa Zakarpatskoi obl. USSR po materialam geologicheskikh s”emok 1961–1969 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Kantolinskii, S. I., & Ponomareva, S. V. (1962). Otchet o geologicheskikh issledovaniyakh, provedennykh na ploshchadi Polyana, Zakarpatskoi oblasti v 1961 g. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Khloponin, K. L. (1970). Stratigrafiya i fauna nummulitov paleogena Vostochnykh Karpat. (Extended abstract of candidateʼs thesis). L’vov. [in Russian]

Kruhlov, S. S. (Red.). (1995). Ponovlena lehenda “Derzhheolkarty–200” Karpatskoi serii lystiv. Lviv; Berehovo. [in Ukrainian]

Kruglov, S. S. (2001). Problemy tektoniki i geodinamiki Zapada Ukrainy (kriticheskii obzor novykh publikatsii). L’vov. [in Russian]

Kruglov, S. S., & Smirnov, S. E. (1979). Stratigrafiya Porkuletskogo pokrova Ukrainskikh Karpat. Geologicheskii zhurnal, 39 (2), 93–102. [in Russian]

Krupskyi, Yu. Z., Kurovets, I. M., Senkovskyi, Yu. M., Mykhailov, V. A., Chepil, P. M., Dryhant, D. M., Shlapinskyi, V. Ye., Koltun, Yu. V.,Chepil, V. P., Kurovets, S. S., & Bodlak, V. P. (2014). Netradytsiini dzherela vuhlevodniv Ukrainy. Kn. 2. Zakhidnyi naftohazonosnyi rehion. Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr. [in Ukrainian]

Kul’chitskii, Ya. O., & Sovchik, Ya. V. (1985). Granitsa paleogena i neogena v Karpatakh. Izvestiya AN SSSR. Seriya geologicheskaya, 11, 56–63. [in Russian]

Kuzovenko, V. V., Glushko, V. V., Myshkin, L. P. i dr. (1990). Izuchenie geologo-geofizicheskikh materialov po Skibovoi i Krosnenskoi zonam Skladchatykh Karpat s tsel’yu vyyavleniya perspektivnykh na neft’ i gaz ob”ektov za 1988–1990 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Kuzovenko, V., & Shlapinskyi, V. (2007). Do pryrody y umov rozmishchennia “skel” neokomskykh diiabaziv u Burkutskomu pokrovi Ukrainskykh Karpat. Pratsi Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka. Heolohichnyi zbirnyk, 19, s. 40–49. [in Ukrainian]

Kuzovenko, V. V., Shlapinskyi, V. Ye., & Machalskyi, D. V. (2001). Detalizatsiia heolohichnoi budovy pivnichno-zakhidnoi chastyny Vnutrishnikh flishovykh pokroviv Ukrainskykh Karpat z metoiu vyiavlennia obʼiektiv perspektyvnykh na naftu i haz (1998–2001 rr.). Lviv: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Ukrainian]

Kuzovenko, V. V., & Tarasenko, V. I. (1987). Regional’nye stratigraficheskie skhemy melovykh, paleogenovykh i neogenovykh otlozhenii Ukrainskikh Karpat, Predkarpatskogo i Zakarpatskogo progibov i yugo-zapadnoi okrainy Vostochno-Evropeiskoi platformy i ob”yasnitel’naya zapiska k nim. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Kuzovenko, V. V., Zhigunova, Z. F., & Bunda, V. A. (1982). Otchet o gruppovom geologicheskom doizuchenii i kompleksnoi s”emke masshtaba 1 : 50 000 na ploshchadi Vyshkov Ivano-Frankovskoi i Zakarpatskoi oblastei USSR v 1978–1982 gg. (listy M-34-120-A, V; M-34-131-B; M-34-132-A, V). L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Kuzovenko, V. V., Zhigunova, Z. F., & Petrov, V. G. (1973). Otchet o rezul’tatakh kompleksnoi geologicheskoi s”emki masshtaba 1 : 50 000, provedennoi na ploshchadi Lomna L’vovskoi i Zakarpatskoi oblastei USSR v 1969–1972 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Kuzovenko, V. V., Zhigunova, Z. F., & Petrov, V. G. (1977). Otchet o rezul’tatakh gruppovoi kompleksnoi geologicheskoi s”emki masshtaba 1 : 50 000, provedennoi na ploshchadi Klimets L’vovskoi i Zakarpatskoi oblastei USSR v 1973–1976 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Ladyzhenskii, N. R., & Gavura, S. P. (1968). Chernogorskii tektonicheskii element i ego severo-zapadnoe prodolzhenie. Geologiya i geokhimiya goryuchikh iskopaemykh, 14, 3–8. [in Russian]

Leshchukh, R. Y. (1982). Nyzhnokreidovi amonity Ukrainskykh Karpat. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Lozyniak, P., & Misiura, Ya. (2010). Osoblyvosti heolohichnoi budovy doneohenovoho fundamentu Zakarpatskoho prohynu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (152–153), 73–84. [in Ukrainian]

Maksimov, A. V. (1959). Stratigrafiya i fauna mollyuskov paleogena Vostochnykh Karpat. (Extended abstract of candidateʼs thesis). L’vov. [in Russian]

Matskiv, B. V. (Vidp. vyk). (2006). Heolohichna budova ta korysni kopalyny baseiniv verkhnoi techii rik Tysa, Prut ta Cheremosh. Zvit: Heolohichne dovyvchennia ploshch masshtabu 1 : 200 000. Rakhivska hrupa arkushiv M-34-XXXVI, L-34-VI, M-35-XXXI (Nadvirna), L-35-I v mezhakh Ukrainy na ploshchi 12 100 kv. km (1997–2006). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Matskiv, B. V., Kovalov, Yu. V., Pukach, B. D., Vorobkanych, V. M. ta in. (2003). Derzhavna heolohichna karta Ukrainy. Masshtab 1 : 200 000. Karpatska seriia. Arkushi: M-34-XXIX (Snina), M-34-XXXV (Uzhhorod), L-34-V (Satu-Mare). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Matskiv, B. V., Pukach, B. D., Vorobkanych, V. M. ta in. (2009). Derzhavna heolohichna karta Ukrainy. Masshtab 1 : 200 000. Karpatska seriia. Arkushi: M-34-XXXVI (Khust), L-34-VI (Baia-Mare), M-35-XXXI (Nadvirna), L-35-I (Visheu). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Panov, G. M. (1967). Markiruyushchie gorizonty paleogena Severo-Bukovinskikh Karpat. In Voprosy geologii Karpat (s. 93–98). L’vov: Izdatel’stvo L’vovskogo universiteta. [in Russian]

Shakin, V. A. (1960). Stratigrafiya i litologiya oligotsenovykh otlozhenii yugo-vostochnoi chasti Sovetskikh Karpat. (Candidateʼs thesis). L’vov. [in Russian]

Shakin, V. O. (1958). Horyzont smuhastykh vapniakiv i yoho znachennia dlia zistavlennia olihotsenovykh vidkladiv Skhidnykh Karpat. Dopovidi AN URSR, 4, 414–416. [in Ukrainian]

Shakin, V. A. (Red). (1977). Geologicheskaya karta Ukrainskikh Karpat i prilegayushchikh progibov. M-b 1 : 200 000. Kiev: Mingeo USSR, UkrNIGRI. [in Russian]

Shlapinskyi, V. Ye. (2007). Litolohichnyi sklad i stratyhrafiia nyzhnoho olihotsenu mezhyrichchia Chornoi Tysy i Chornoho Cheremoshu. In Prykladna heolohichna nauka sohodni: zdobutky ta problemy: Materialy mizhnarodnoi naukovo-tekhnichnoi konferentsii, prysviachenoi 50-richchiu stvorennia UkrDHRI (Kyiv, 5–6 lypnia 2007 r.) (s. 194–196). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V. (2012). Pro hranytsiu mizh olihotsenom i miotsenom v Boryslavsko-Pokutskomu pokryvi Peredkarpatskoho prohynu i Skladchastykh Karpatakh. Pratsi Naukovoho tovarystva im. Shevchenka. Heolohichnyi zbirnyk, 30, 100–118. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V. E. (2018). Pokuttia deep fault and its influence on tectonics and the oil- and gas-bearing of the south-eastern segment of the Carpathians. Geodynamics, 2 (25), 53–69.

Shlapinskyi, V. Ye., Hlushko, V. V., & Kuzovenko, V. V. (1994). Vyvchennia heolohichnoi budovy i perspektyv naftohazonosnosti zony zchlenuvannia Duklianskoho, Chornohorskoho i Krosnenskoho pokroviv Ukrainskykh Karpat v 1991–1994 rr. (T. 1). Lviv: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V. Ye., Kuzovenko, V. V., & Machalskyi, D. V. (1998). Vyvchennia heoloho-heofizychnykh materialiv po pivdenno-skhidnii chastyni vnutrishnikh flishovykh pokroviv Ukrainskykh Karpat z metoiu vyiavlennia perspektyvnykh na naftu ta haz obiektiv (1995–1998 rr.) (T. 1). Lviv: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V., & Machalskyi, D. (2006). Do istorii vidkryttia ta doslidzhennia markuvalnoho horyzontu smuhastykh vapniakiv v Ukrainskykh Karpatakh. In Problemy heolohii ta naftohazonosnosti Karpat: tezy dopovidei Mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii do 100-richchia vid dnia narodzhennia chlen-korespondenta NAN Ukrainy M. R. Ladyzhenskoho ta 55-richchia Instytutu heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy (26–28 veresnia 2006 r.) (s. 242–244). Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V. Ye., Machalskyi, D. V., & Khomiak, L. M. (2013). Utochneni dani shchodo paleohenovykh vidkladiv Peninskoho pokryvu Ukrainskykh Karpat. Tektonika i stratyhrafiia, 40, 125–133. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V., Pavliuk, M., Medvediev, A., & Ternavskyi, M. (2019). Olistostroma v olihotseni Turkivskoho subpokryvu Krosnenskoho pokryvu i Stavnianskoho subpokryvu Dukliansko-Chornohorskoho pokryvu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1 (178), 5–20. [in Ukrainian]

Shlapinskyi, V. Ye., Zhabina, N. M., Machalskyi, D. V., & Ternavskyi, M. M. (2017). Heolohichna budova Peninskoho pokryvu Ukrainskykh Karpat. Heodynamika, 1 (22), 55–73. [in Ukrainian]

Sovchik, Ya. V. (1984). O tektonicheskom raionirovanii i formirovanii struktury Karpat. Geotektonika, 5, 47–60. [in Russian]

Starosel’skii, M. V. (1959). Geologicheskii otchet o rezul’tatakh poiskovogo bureniya, provedennogo na ploshchadi Bitlya L’vovskoi i Zakarpatskoi oblastei USSR v 1957–1958 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Stratigraficheskii slovar’ USSR. (1985). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Vashchenko, V. O., & Hnylko, O. M. (2003). Pro stratyhrafiiu solenosnykh molas Ukrainskoho Prykarpattia. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats UkrNDHRI, 2, 71–78. [in Ukrainian]

Vashchenko, V. O., Yevtushko, T. L., & Brytan, A. Y. (2003). Derzhavna heolohichna karta Ukrainy. Masshtab 1 : 200 000. Karpatska seriia. Arkushi: M-34-XXXII (Chernivtsi), L-35-II (Kympylunh–Moldovenesk). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Vul’chin, E. I., & Kul’chitskii, Ya. O. (1959). O novykh nakhodkakh i osnovnykh chertakh piroklasticheskikh obrazovanii v melovykh i tretichnykh obrazovaniyakh Vostochnykh Karpat. Trudy UkrNIGRI, 1, 97–107. [in Russian]

Vyalov, O. S. (1983). Diskussionnye voprosy tektoniki i stratigrafii Ukrainskikh Karpat. Geologicheskii zhurnal, 43 (2), 117–126. [in Russian]

Vyalov, O. S., Gavura, S. P., Danysh, V. V. i dr. (1988). Stratotipy melovykh i paleogenovikh otlozhenii Ukrainskikh Karpat. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Zhigunova, Z. F., Koval’, Zh. S., & Petrov, V. G. (1966). Otchet o poiskovo-s”emochnykh rabotakh masshtaba 1 : 25 000, provedennykh na ploshchadi Lyuta Zakarpatskoi oblasti USSR v 1964–1965 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Zhigunova, Z. F., Koval’, Zh. S., & Petrov, V. G. (1968). Otchet o poiskovo-s”emochnykh rabotakh masshtaba 1 : 25 000, provedennykh na ploshchadi Perechin Zakarpatskoi oblasti USSR v 1966–1967 gg. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]

Zhurakovskii, A. G., Nekrasova, L. P., & Petrov, V. G. (1962). Otchet o geologicheskikh issledovaniyakh, provedennykh na ploshchadi Svalyava, Svalyavskogo r-na Zakarpatskoi oblasti USSR v 1961 g. L’vov: Fondy DP “Zakhidukrheolohiia”. [in Russian]