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CLAY MINERALS FROM ROCK SALT OF BAHADUR KHEL FORMATION, EOCENE, PAKISTAN

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 87-100


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 87-100.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Yaroslava YAREMCHUK, Serhiy VOVNYUK

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, е-mail: slava.yaremchuk@gmail.com

Mohammad TARIQ

Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Quetta, Pakistan

Abstract

According to studies of the pelitic fraction of the water-insoluble residue of 10 samples of Eocene rock salt of the Bahadur Khel Formation (Pakistan), it was determined that the clay minerals association contains swelling chlorite, chlorite-smectite, illite and kaolinite; chlorite was identified in three samples. Non-clay minerals are represented by quartz, dolomite, less often – magnesite; one sample contains impurities of both carbonates. Swelling chlorite, chlorite and mixed-layer minerals are trioctahedral, and illite and kaolinite are dioctahedral. All identified clay minerals, with the exception of kaolinite, are authigenic.

The presence of swelling chlorite in Eocene rock salt is probably caused by changes in the concentration of brines in the basin against the background of complex geological processes of this era (climate change from thermal maximum to global cooling, changes in water circulation in oceans, changes in isotopic composition of carbonates).

The association of clay minerals of Eocene rock salt, taking into account the peculiarities of its composition and the presence of swelling chlorite in it, we attributed to that formed during the SO4-rich seawater chemical type. This is also confirmed by two finds of swelling chlorite in the Triassic evaporites (rock salt of the Western Moroccan Basin, Midland marl) described in the literature, which are known to have been deposited from SO4-rich seawater.

The presence of kaolinite in almost all samples is caused by its largest accumulation in sediments of this time period – terrigenous kaolinite came in large quantities from dry land and did not transform even at the stage halite precipitation.

Keywords

clay minerals, swelling chlorite, rock salt, Eocene, Bahadur Khel Salt, Pakistan.

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GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RIVER AND GROUND WATERS (OUTER ZONE OF THE PRECARPATHIAN DEEP)

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 76-86


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 76-86.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Maria KOST’, Halyna MEDVID, Vasyl HARASYMCHUK,Olga TELEGUZ, Iryna SAKHNYUK, Orysia MAYKUT

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Geochemical peculiarities of river and groundwaters of the Outer zone of the Precarpathian deep have been established. It is revealed that the main feature of the distribution of salt composition indicators in the Dniester River and its influxes is hydrochemical zonality, which does not depend on the flow direction of the rivers, but is consistent with the physics-geographical and geological features of the area to which the man-made factor is imposed.

There is an increase in concentrations of sulfate, calcium in the left bank confluent of the river Shchyrka. The waters from the Tysmenytsya, Kolodnitsa and Dniester rivers in the village Kolodrubi are characterized by the highest amounts of sodium and chlorides and are sodium chloride-hydrocarbonate composition. The water composition of the Dniester River (Rozvadiv village), its confluents Bystrytsia and Letnyanka are hydrocarbonate calcium (sodium-magnesium-calcium), Shchyrka, Vereshchitsa – sulfate-hydrocarbonate calcium (magnesium-calcium). The index of biochemical oxygen consumption for 5 days in the waters of Tysmenytsya River reached 4.5 mg O2/dm3, while in other rivers it was 0.70‒3.20 mg O2/dm3. The content of O2 soluble in the waters of the river Vereshchytsya was 0.29 mg/dm3, the value of biochemical oxygen consumption was 11.4 mg O2/dm3.

In the chemical composition of river waters, there is an increase in the concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions from the left bank to the right bank confluents of the Dniester. In the left-bank confluents, in the chemical composition of water dominate the contents of calcium and hydrocarbons ions.

The heterogeneity of the lithological composition, the instability of the thickness of the aquifer both in the horizontal and vertical directions, and the different technogenic influence form the irregularity of pollution and its local distribution in groundwater.

Keywords

river waters, groundwaters, geochemical features, geochemical zonality, Outer zone, Precarpathian deep.

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GEOCHEMISTRY AND THERMOBAROMOMETRY OF MINERAL-FORMING FLUIDS AND THERMOBAROGEOCHEMISTRY OF EVAPORITES – WORLD-FAMOUS SCIENTIFIC SCHOOLS

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 76-86


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 76-86.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Ihor NAUMKO, Myroslav PAVLYUK, Andriy POBEREZHSKYY

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Fundamental and applied achievements in the fields of geochemistry and thermobarometry of mineral-forming fluids and thermobarogeochemistry of evaporites are summarized as the basis of the corresponding world-famous scientific thermobarogeochemical schools established by professors V. A. Kalyuzhny and O. Yo. Petrychenko at the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the basis of creative development of ideas of predecessors with the support of academicians Ye. K. Lazarenko, V. S. Sobolyev, H. N. Dolenko. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of schools to geological science, which is determined by the formed knowledge base on geochemical and thermobaric parameters of fluid environments of mineral-ore- naphthidogenesis in the Earth’s lithosphere (according to data of fluid inclusions research). In this context, in view of the enormous array of available data, the composition, physicochemical properties, genesis of fluids of the upper mantle and crust are briefly discussed and it is shown that the course of processes of petro-, mineral-, ore-, naphthidogenesis and formation fields of hydrocarbon, ore and non-ore minerals is determined by the peculiarities of degassing (defluidization) of the Earth and its influence on the conversion of carbon compounds during terrigenous, organogenic, hemogenic sedimentation and on the processes of diagenesis of sediments of various origins. The obtained data on the reproduction of the evolution of the fluid regime of rock complexes contribute to solving the fundamental problem of geochemistry of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbon-hydrogen matter) and deep (endogenous) fluid flows in the Earth’s lithosphere as an important basis for mineralofluidological model of the planet. They played a decisive role in substantiating at the Institute on the basis of abiogenic-biogenic dualism universal approaches to the processes of synthesis and genesis of natural hydrocarbons in the form of a new fundamental paradigm of oil and gas geology and geochemistry, the polygenesis of natural hydrocarbons in the Earth’s bowels, which increases the potential of oil and gas resources of promising regions, including Ukraine. This creates the preconditions for the identification of promising rock complexes for hydrocarbon, ore and non-ore minerals by applying the obtained fundamental thermobarogeochemical data in forecasting, exploration and operational practice on the basis of developing of new non-traditional geotechnologies for assessment and exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals.

Keywords

fluid inclusions, geochemistry, thermobarometry, fluids, fluid media, mineral-ore-naphthidogenesis, Earth’s lithosphere.

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Naumko, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Bratus, M., Zinchuk, I., Kovalyshyn, Z., Matviienko, O., Redko, L., & Svoren, Y. (2000). Uchennia pro mineralotvorni fliuidy: priorytetni zavdannia rozvytku na suchasnomu etapi. Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 50 (2), 22–30. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Svoren, Y., Zinchuk, I., Bekesha, S., Redko, L., Sakhno, B., Druchok, L., Telepko, L., Beletska, Yu., Matviishyn, Z., Sava, N., Bondar, R., & Stepaniuk, V. (2007). Fliuidy postsedymentohennykh protsesiv v osadovykh ta osadovo-vulkanohennykh verstvakh pivdenno-zakhidnoi okrainy Skhidnoievropeiskoi platformy i prylehlykh heostruktur (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4, 63–94. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, І. М., Kovalyshyn, Z. I., Svoren’, J. M., Sakhno, B. Е., & Telepko, L. F. (1999). Towards forming conditions of veinlet mineralization in sedimentary oil- and gas- bearing layers of Carpathian region (obtained by data of fluid inclusions research). Геологія і геохімія горючих копалин, 3 (108), 83–91.

Naumko, І. М., Кurovets’, І. М., Zubyk, М. І., Batsevych, N. V., Sakhno, B. Е., & Chepusenko, P. S. (2017). Hydrocarbon compounds and plausible mechanism of gas generation in “shale” gas prospective Silurian deposits of Lviv Paleozoic depression. Geodynamics, 1 (22), 26–41.

Naumko, I. M., Pavliuk, M. I., Svoren, Y. M., & Zubyk, M. I. (2015). Metan hazovuhilnykh rodovyshch – potuzhne dodatkove dzherelo vuhlevodniv v Ukraini. Visnyk NAN Ukrainy, 6, 43–54. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., Pavliuk, M. I., Svoren, Y. M., & Zubyk, M. I. (2016). Hazy vuhilnykh rodovyshch: nove vyrishennia problemy syntezu–henezysu metanu. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 3, 61–68. https://doi.org/10.15407/dopovidi2016.03.061 [in Ukrainian]

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KEROGEN AMOUNT CALCULATION REQUIRED FOR THE FORMATION OF HYDROCARBON DEPOSITS IN THE WESTERN OIL AND GAS REGION OF UKRAINE

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 52-61


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 52-61.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Yurii KHOKHA, Oleksandr LYUBCHAK, Myroslava YAKOVENKO, Dmytro BRYK

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv

Abstract

This paper considers the issue of determining the maximum hydrocarbons amount that can be generated by kerogen using thermodynamic methods. It is shown that the chemical composition of natural gas or gas condensate contains information about the generative capacity of kerogen from which it was formed. Based on experiments of type II and I kerogen pyrolysis and thermodynamic calculations by entropy maximization method, we propose a new method for determining the amount of kerogen from which gas was formed, which contains 1 dm3 of methane at a given ratio of butane isomers. The obtained data are interpreted as an indicator of kerogen maturity in the context of the depth of its destruction.

This method is applied to theWestern oil and gas region of Ukraine hydrocarbon deposits. The analysis of kerogen transformations in the region sedimentary strata, using criteria of the GASTAR diagram, is carried out. We assessed the trends of kerogen conversion in the region in the areas of “maturity” and “biodegradation” in the ratio of ethane/propane (C2/C3) to ethane/isobutane (C2/i-C4). It is shown that the majority of deposits in the Western oil and gas region developed in the direction of maturation and only a small group of gas deposits – biodegradation.

To establish the gases genesis in the region, we built a graph of the two geochemical indicators dependence – the methane/ethane ratio (C1/C2) and ethane/propane ratio (C2/C3). It is shown that some of the gas fields is formed due to the conversion of organic material of oil deposits. At the same time, gas condensate fields in the region, with few exceptions, are formed due to the primary destruction of kerogen.

Based on the results of the calculations, maps of the methane (generated by type II kerogen) amount distribution were constructed. It is established that kerogen, which was the source material for hydrocarbon deposits of Boryslav-Pokuts oil and gas region, has practically exhausted its gas generation potential. Instead, kerogen from gas and gas condensate fields in the Bilche-Volytska oil and gas district still retains the potential to generate hydrocarbons.

Keywords

kerogen, butane isomers, thermodynamic modelling, gas-generating potential.

REFERENCES

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COLLISION DEFORMATIONS OF THE DNIEPER-DONETS DEPRESSION Article 3. Geodynamic model of tectonic inversion

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 40-51


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 40-51.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Оleksiy BARTASHCHUK

Ukrainian Research Institute of Natural Gases, Kharkiv, e-mail: alekseybart@gmail.соm

Abstract

The article concludes the trilogy on post-strip deformations of the Dnieper-Donets Basin. The results of tectonophysical analysis of collision deformations of the platform cover of the south-eastern part of the Dnieper-Donets Basin are summarized. Using the original method of reconstruction of stress and strain fields and tectonophysical analysis of geostructures, the system organization of inversion structural deformations of the Dnieper-Donets Basin and Donbass was studied.

The tectonic inversion of the Dnieper-Donets Basin began in the Late Hercynian epoch in the situation of a general-plate collision under the influence of the inversion rise of the Donbas. Structural and kinematic analysis of deformations shows that the folds in the depression and linear anti- and synforms of the Donets Foldbelt were formed by the natural mechanism of longitudinal bending as a result of collisional warping of horizons in the geodynamic mode of transformation. In the late Mesozoic–­­Cenozoic inversion continued in the field of right-hand horizontal-shear deformations with a variable compressive component. This mode caused the advancing and pushing of sedimentary geomass from the Donets Foldbelt to the Hercynian neo-autochthonous and syneclise autochthonous of the South-Eastern Dnieper-Donets Basin. Due to the influence of the tectonic stamp of the Donets Foldbelt, the West Donets wedge-shaped segment was formed – the orocline of geomass tectonic wedging. Geodynamic bands of injection and displacement of sedimentary geomass were formed in the front of the invasion and in the axial zone of the orocline, where the main folded zones were formed. In Forland, at the ends of the main thrusts – “tectonic rails” of the wedging, an advanced scaly compression fan was formed. In the hinterland of the orocline, folded suture zones are formed by the roots of the covers of thrusting.

The original geodynamic model of tectonic inversion provides for the destruction of the riftogenic structure in the Southeast of the Dnieper-Donets Basin by thrusting echelons of scaly covers and coulisses-articulated upliftt-folding. They compose a segment of the insertion of the geomasses of the Paleozoic cover into the territory of the West Donets Graben from the side of the Donets Foldbelt. The intrusion of the tectonic segment led to the formation of an inversion structure of a regional scale – the West Donets Cover-Folded Region.

Keywords

geodynamic model, tectonic inversion, waves of longitudinal deformations, West-Donets Cover-Folded Region.

Referenses

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019a). Horyzontalni peremishchennia heomasyviv u kontynentalnykh ryftohennykh heostrukturakh (na prykladi Dniprovskoho-Donetskoho paleoryfta). Chastyna 3. Systemna orhanizatsiia postryftovykh reidnykh deformatsii. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni V. N. Karazina. Seriia “Heolohiia. Heohrafiia. Ekolohiia”, 51, 26‒40. [in Ukrainian]

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019b). Evoliutsiia napruzheno-deformovanoho stanu zemnoi kory Dniprovsko-Donetskoho paleoryftu u fanerozoi. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 3, 62–71. [in Ukrainian]

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019c). Koliziini deformatsii ryftohennoi struktury Dniprovsko-Donetskoi zapadyny. Stattia 1. Tektonika zony zchlenuvannia z Donetskoiu skladchastoiu sporudoiu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3 (180), 77‒90. [in Ukrainian]

Bartashchuk, O. V. (2019d). Koliziini deformatsii ryftohennoi struktury Dniprovsko-Donetskoi zapadyny. Stattia 2. Kinematychni mekhanizmy tektonichnoi inversii. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4 (181), 1‒13. [in Ukrainian]

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CRITICAL CONSIDERATION OF PROBLEMATIC QUESTIONS OF STRATIGRAPHY AND TECTONICS OF THE FOLDED CARPATHIANS AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES ON THE PATTERN OF STATE GEOLOGICAL MAP – 200

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 5-39


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 5-39.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Volodymyr SHLAPINSKY, Myroslav PAVLYUK, Myroslav TERNAVSKY

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

The paper gives a critical appreciation of a number of principles containing in materials of the State geological map at a scale of 1 : 200 000 (Carpathian series of sheets) published in 2003–2009. Its scientific and practical value is recognized as a source of knowledge of the structure and natural resources of the Carpathians. At the same time, numerous inaccuracies are noted in the sphere of stratigraphy and tectonics, but revealed in the reviewed work. This was negatively depicted on the quality of geological and tectonical maps of the Folded Carpathians, presented in it, that in its turn may have an influence on the appreciation of the prospects of oil and gas presence in the region, may be not for the best. On the basis of the analysis of considerable amount of factual material, including that one received after the publication of State geological map – 200, the authors have corrected revealed defects. The attention was paid to the possibility to create the latest, more perfect map of the Outer Carpathians at a scale of 1 : 100 000. Its base version is already existent.

Keywords

Folded Outer Carpathians, stratigraphy and tectonics, legend of the State geological map – 200, tectonics regioning, nappes, subnappes.

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