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Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 87-100

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 87-100.


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, е-mail:

Mohammad TARIQ

Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Quetta, Pakistan


According to studies of the pelitic fraction of the water-insoluble residue of 10 samples of Eocene rock salt of the Bahadur Khel Formation (Pakistan), it was determined that the clay minerals association contains swelling chlorite, chlorite-smectite, illite and kaolinite; chlorite was identified in three samples. Non-clay minerals are represented by quartz, dolomite, less often – magnesite; one sample contains impurities of both carbonates. Swelling chlorite, chlorite and mixed-layer minerals are trioctahedral, and illite and kaolinite are dioctahedral. All identified clay minerals, with the exception of kaolinite, are authigenic.

The presence of swelling chlorite in Eocene rock salt is probably caused by changes in the concentration of brines in the basin against the background of complex geological processes of this era (climate change from thermal maximum to global cooling, changes in water circulation in oceans, changes in isotopic composition of carbonates).

The association of clay minerals of Eocene rock salt, taking into account the peculiarities of its composition and the presence of swelling chlorite in it, we attributed to that formed during the SO4-rich seawater chemical type. This is also confirmed by two finds of swelling chlorite in the Triassic evaporites (rock salt of the Western Moroccan Basin, Midland marl) described in the literature, which are known to have been deposited from SO4-rich seawater.

The presence of kaolinite in almost all samples is caused by its largest accumulation in sediments of this time period – terrigenous kaolinite came in large quantities from dry land and did not transform even at the stage halite precipitation.


clay minerals, swelling chlorite, rock salt, Eocene, Bahadur Khel Salt, Pakistan.


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Home > Archive > No. 3-4 (172-173) 2017 > 56-75

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 3-4 (172-173) 2017, 56-75.


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, е-mail:


Based on the results of mineralogical, petrological and fluid inclusion studies of Phanerozoic evaporates and sedimentary deposits the geochemical criteria of connection of hydrocarbons with evaporite and sedimentary formations have been defined. The study of fluid inclusions containing hydrocarbons has been conducted; the peculiarities of hydrocarbon gases distribution in subsurface sedimentary rocks and their possible connection to potential deep hydrocarbon deposits have been studied in regions of hydrocarbon deposits occurrence; the interaction between organic matter and clay minerals has been studied on the example of evaporate and terrigenous deposits of Carpathian region; the geochemistry of processes of vein minerals forming of different structural zones of Carpathians has been studied in relation to oil- and gas-bearing.

Based on geochemical study of peculiarities of fluid inclusions in halite we can reconstruct PT parameters of alteration and migration of hydrocarbons. The criteria of the hydrocarbon deposits prognosis are as follows: occurrence of bitumen bubbles (or droplets of oil with the hard bitumen crust) in fluid inclusions in halite together with elevated content of methane (above 50 %) and other hydrocarbon gases in inclusions. For the reliable estimation of oil and gas deposits occurrence in the underlying rocks it is important to have correlation between the results of complex geochemical study of fluid inclusions and bitumens in salt.

The direct features of oil and gas bearing (fields of anomalous concentrations of hydrocarbon compounds) determined in subsurface sedimentary complexes allow us to outline prioritized fields of potential hydrocarbon accumulation. The use of gas-geochemical method of study in complex oil and gas prospecting works allows to increase their effectiveness.

It is important to keep in mind during prospecting works for hydrocarbons that trapping of organic compounds (including gases) by interlayer space of clay minerals (in particular smectite) impacts the gas production ability of clay strata.

 Mineralogical and geochemical studies of vein formations in sedimentary complexes show that Crosno and Duklya zones and Marmarosh crystalline massive are the most promising oil- and gas-bearing regions of the Eastern Carpathians.

The determined geochemical criteria of hydrocarbon deposits occurrence allow increasing the effectiveness of prospecting works for oil and gas.


sedimentary formations, evaporites, Phanerozoic, hydrocarbons, fluid inclusions in halite, geochemical anomalies, clay minerals, vein formations.


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