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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 92–112

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 92–112


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


The energy components of sustainable development in the countries of the European Union have been analyzed, in particular according to goal 7 “Affordable and clean energy”, directions of the European Green Deal, taking into consideration synergies and compromises, as well as cross-cutting factors in achieving the specified indicators. It is shown that in 2019, the EU’s energy dependence on energy imports by types of fuel was: oil and oil products – more than 90 %, natural gas – about 80 %, solid fossil fuels – about 40 %. During 2014–2019, the decrease in the use of solid fuels (−4.9 %) was compensated by the increase in the use of renewable energy sources and biofuels (+2 %), as well as by the increase in the use of natural gas (+3.4 %), which could not cause a significant reduction in the share of fossil fuel use and a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gas – carbon dioxide CO2, at the same time the total dependence of EU countries on fuel imports increased from 54.4 to 60.7 % (by 6.3 %), which negatively affects the achievement of energy indicators of sustainable development. In 2019, the total share of renewable energy sources was 19.7 % with an ambitious goal of reaching 32 % in 2030.

The energy components of sustainable development in Ukraine are analyzed. It is shown that, in particular, according to goal 7 “Affordable and clean energy”, the progress of the specified indicators is characterized by a low probability of achievement; in 2019, the share of coal imports in Ukraine was 68.6 %, oil – 76.7 %, natural gas – 45.1 %, and the total share of imports of primary energy resources by 2030 should be reduced to a level of not less than 12 % and the share of energy from renewable sources should reach 17 %.

Based on a comparison of the energy components of sustainable development in the countries of the European Union and in Ukraine, the main requirements for energy indicators and tasks of sustainable development for Ukraine and its regions are proposed. These requirements differ in the addition of energy indicators and tasks of sustainable development in Ukraine with indicators that are monitored in the countries of the European Union and were not used in Ukraine before, as well as the introduction of indicators that take into consideration the energy characteristics of the regions of Ukraine. An adaptive structure of energy tasks and indicators for the regions of Ukraine is proposed.


sustainable development goals, energy tasks and indicators, sustainable energy


Derzhavna sluzhba statystyky Ukrainy. (2021a). Dobrovilnyi natsionalnyi ohliad shchodo Tsilei staloho rozvytku v Ukraini (2015–2019 rr.). [in Ukrainian]

Derzhavna sluzhba statystyky Ukrainy. (2021b). Monitorynhovyi zvit shchodo dosiahnennia Tsilei staloho rozvytku 2020. [in Ukrainian]

European Commission. (2019). A European Green Deal.

European Commission. (2021). Sustainable development in the European Union Monitoring report on progress towards the SDGs in an EU context 2021 edition.

Hauke, J., & Kossowski, T. (2011). Comparison of Values of Pearson’s and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficients on the Same Sets of Data. Quaestiones Geographicae, 30(2), 87–93.

Ministerstvo zakhystu dovkillia ta pryrodnykh resursiv Ukrainy. (2019). Natsionalna dopovid pro stan navkolyshnoho pryrodnoho seredovyshcha v Ukraini. [in Ukrainian]

NextGenerationEU. (2019). NextGenerationEU.

Podolskyi, M., & Bryk, D. (2020). Naukovi pidkhody dlia dosiahnennia tsilei staloho rozvytku Ukrainy. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats ΛΌГOΣ, 52–55. [in Ukrainian]

Podolskyi, M., Kulchytska-Zhyhailo, L., & Hvozdevych O. (2020a). Pokaznyky enerhoefektyvnosti v konteksti tsilei staloho rozvytku Ukrainy. Materialy konferentsii MTsND, 27–31. [in Ukrainian]

Podolskyi, M., Kulchytska-Zhyhailo, L., & Hvozdevych, O. (2020b). Struktura ta tekhnolohichni aspekty vykorystannia enerhetychnykh resursiv v krainakh Yevropeiskoho Soiuzu ta v Ukraini. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats ΛΌГOΣ, 52–55. [in Ukrainian]

United Nations Statistics Division. (2021). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2021.

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 81–91

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 81–91


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


It is shown that the problem of the nature of water in oil and gas fields must be solved in an inextricable connection with the genesis and synthesis of natural hydrocarbons in the Earth’s bowels. The work offers an original solution, based on a new theory of the synthesis and genesis of hydrocarbons (oil, gas, etc.): abiogenic-biogenic dualism, which asserts that giant and supergiant oil and gas fields were formed from inorganic and organic original hydrocarbon-containing substances under the influence of abiogenic high-thermobaric deep fluid in harsh physical, physicochemical and geological conditions of the earth’s crust. Since the abiogenic high-thermobaric deep fluid contains hydrogen H+ and OH-containing anions, the described mechanism for the interaction of positively charged ions: C+, H+, CnHm+-radicals with the formation-synthesis of a complex hydrocarbon mixture such as gas, oil, bitumen, etc. must be logically supplemented by a reaction: Н2О → Н+ + ОН. As a result of this complex physical and chemical process, the maximum concentration of (OH) anions accumulated in the oxidation zone, which after the disappearance of the electric field become neutral and interact with each other according to the scheme: ОН + ОН = Н2О2 – hydrogen peroxide, which is an unstable compound, which decomposes into Н2О + О. Oxygen atoms became the starting substances for the formation of macro- and microcracks in these cavities under harsh conditions of rocks of the carbonate or quartz-carbonate type, etc., much less often – perfect mineral crystals, which with their defects in the process of growth (synthesis) captivate and preserve substances in the system (proper hydrocarbons and water). Тherefore, it was established for the first time that the natural water of oil and gas fields has a dual lithospheric-asthenospheric nature, while the lithospheric part is dominant, the isotopic composition is a mixture of these waters, and the deuterium isotope is more chemically active in complex physical and chemical processes, which run through the bowels of the planet. The obtained original data will contribute to the solution of Ukraine’s serious problem with energy carriers: natural gas, oil, coal and drinking water.


fluid inclusions, hydrocarbons, drinking water, energy carriers, oil and gas industry, fundamental science, scientific discoveries


Bratus, M. D., Davydenko, M. M., Zinchuk, I. M., Kaliuzhnyi, V. A., Matviienko, O. D., Naumko, I. M., Pirozhyk, N. E., Redko, L. R., & Svoren, Y. M. (1994). Fliuidnyi rezhym mineraloutvorennia v litosferi (v zviazku z prohnozuvanniam korysnykh kopalyn). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Dolenko, G. N. (1975). Sovremennoye sostoyaniye problemy proiskhozhdeniya nefti i gaza i formirovaniya ikh promyshlennykh zalezhey. In Zakonomernosti obrazovaniya i razmeshcheniya promyshlennykh mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (pp. 3–17). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Naumko, I. M. (2006). Fliuidnyi rezhym mineralohenezu porodno-rudnykh kompleksiv Ukrainy (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh typovykh parahenezysiv) [Extended abstract of Doctorʼs thesis]. Instytut heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy. Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., & Svoren, Y. (2021). Innovatsiini tekhnolohii poshukiv korysnykh kopalyn, osnovani na doslidzhenniakh fliuidnykh vkliuchen u mineralakh. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4(185–186), 92–108. [in Ukrainian]

Pavliuk, I., Naumko, I., & Stefanyk, Yu. (2007, December 13). Heolohy-naukovtsi proty metanu-vbyvtsi. U Lvovi na Naukovii taky ye nauka. Ukraina i Chas, 50(286), 7.

Svoren, Y. M. (1975). Istochniki uglerodsoderzhashchikh gazov vklyucheniy. In Uglerod i ego soyedineniya v endogennykh protsessakh mineraloobrazovaniya (po dannym izucheniya flyuidnykh vklyucheniy v mineralakh): tezisy Respublikanskogo soveshchaniya (Lvov, sentyabr 1975 g.) (pp. 104–106). Lvov. [in Russian]

Svoren, I. M. (1984). Primesi gazov v kristallakh mineralov i drugikh tverdykh telakh, ikh sposoby izvlecheniya, sostav, forma nakhozhdeniya i vliyaniye na svoystva veshchestv [Extended abstract of Candidateʼs thesis]. Institut geologii i geokhimii goryuchikh iskopayemykh AN USSR. Lvov. [in Russian]

Svoren. I. M. (1988). Formy nakhozhdeniya vodoroda v nekotorykh tverdykh materialakh razlichnogo proiskhozhdeniya soglasno fiziko-khimicheskoy modeli navodorozhivaniya tverdykh tel. In Geokhimiya i termobarometriya endogennykh flyuidov (pp. 95–103). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Svoren, Y. M. (1992). Pytannia teorii henezysu pryrodnykh vuhlevodniv ta shliakhy poshuku yikh pokladiv. In Tektohenez i naftohazonosnist nadr Ukrainy (pp. 143–145). Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. (2011). Nadra Zemli – pryrodnyi fizyko-khimichnyi reaktor: izotopy vuhletsiu pro pokhodzhennia planety Zemlia. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2(154–155), 158–159. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. (2018). Vlastyvist hlybynnoho abiohennoho metanovmisnoho vysokotermobarnoho fliuidu utvoriuvaty vuhillia. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4(176–177), 105–109. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. (2019). Nadra Zemli – pryrodnyi fizyko-khimichnyi reaktor: rizna khimichna vlastyvist izotopiv vuhletsiu u pryrodnykh protsesakh syntezu riznykh spoluk. In Problemy heolohii fanerozoiu Ukrainy: materialy X Vseukrainskoi naukovoi konferentsii (do 95-richchia kafedry istorychnoi heolohii ta paleontolohii i 120-richchia vid narodzhennia Severyna Ivanovycha Pasternaka (Lviv, 9–11 zhovtnia 2019 r.) (pp. 64–67). Lviv: LNU imeni Ivana Franka. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. (2020a). Nadra Zemli – pryrodnyi fizyko-khimichnyi reaktor: pryroda vody naftovykh i hazovykh rodovyshch. In Naftohazova haluz: Perspektyvy naroshchuvannia resursnoi bazy: materialy dopovidei Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-tekhnichnoi konferentsii (Ivano-Frankivsk, 8–9 hrudnia 2020 r.) (pp. 158–160). Ivano-Frankivsk: IFNTUNH. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, J. M. (2020b). Subsoil Natural Physico-Chemical Reactor: Regularity of Natural Processes of Synthesis of Perfect Diamond Crystals. Journal of Geological Resource and Engineering, 8(4), 133–136.

Svoren, J. M. (2021). Subsoil Natural Physico-chemical Reactor: The Property of Deep Abiogenic Methane-Containing High-Thermobaric Fluid to Form Coal Seams. Journal of Geological Resource and Engineering, 9(1), 25–28.

Svoren, Y. M., & Davydenko, M. M. (1995). Termobarometriia i heokhimiia haziv prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii u vidkladakh naftohazonosnykh oblastei i metalohenichnykh provintsii. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 9, 72–73. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., Davydenko, M. M., Haievskyi, V. H., Krupskyi, Yu. Z., & Pelypchak, B. P. (1994). Perspektyvy termobarometrii i heokhimii haziv prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii u vidkladakh naftohazonosnykh oblastei i metalohenichnykh provintsii. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4(88–89), 54–63. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., & Naumko, I. M. (2003). Nova teoriia syntezu i henezysu vuhlevodniv u litosferi Zemli: abiohenno-biohennyi dualizm. In Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya “Krym–2003” (pp. 75–77). Simferopol. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., & Naumko, I. M. (2006). Nova teoriia syntezu i henezysu pryrodnykh vuhlevodniv: abiohenno-biohennyi dualizm. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 2, 111–116. [in Ukrainian]

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FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF MINERAL FLUIDOLOGY IN THE WORKS OF PROFESSOR VOLODYMYR ANTONOVYCH KALYUZHNYI (based on the materials of the Memorial Academy on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth)

Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 66–80

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 66–80

Ihor NAUMKO1, Myroslav PAVLYUK1, Oleh ZYNYUK2, Anatoliy GALAMAY1, Myroslavа YAKOVENKO1, Zoryana MATVIISHYN1

1 Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:
2 Western Scientific Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, е-mail:


The fundamental problems and achievements of mineralofluidology in the works of the outstanding Ukrainian scientist-geologist, mineralogist-geochemist, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology, laureate of the International Gold Medal named after the outstanding English researcher of fluid inclusions H. C. Sorby (the H. C. Sorby medal), recipient of the State Scholarship for Outstanding Scientists of Ukraine, Doctor of Sciences (Geology, Mineralogy), Professor Volodymyr Antonovych Kalyuzhnyі – one of the founders of the fundamental science on fluid inclusions, the creator of the world-famous scientific school of geochemistry and thermobarometry of mineral-forming fluids are discussed. The Memorial Academy on the occasion of celebrating a significant date – the 100th anniversary of the birth of Volodymyr Kalyuzhnyі was held on October 25, 2022, at the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals (IGGCM) of the NAS of Ukraine within the framework of the Department of Earth Sciences of the NAS of Ukraine at the visiting meeting of the Earth Sciences Section of the Western Science Center (WSC) of the NAS of Ukraine and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. Members of the Council and Executive Committee of the WSC, employees of the Institute and neighboring scientific institutions took part in its work. Head of the Institute, Аcademician of the NAS of Ukraine Myroslav Pavlyuk opened the Memorial Academy with an opening speech, greetings from the WSC of the NAS of Ukraine and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine were delivered by the deputy head of the WSC, director of the WSC, PhD (Тechnic), Аssociate Рrofessor Oleh Zynyuk. Scientific reports were given by: Head of the Department of Geochemistry of Deep Fluids of the Institute, Corresponding Member of the NAS of Ukraine Ihor Naumko and Head of the Department of Geochemistry of Sedimentary Strata of Oil and Gas-bearing provinces, PhD (Geology), Senior Research Fellow Anatoliy Galamay. Scientific Secretary of the Institute, PhD (Geology), Senior Researcher Myroslava Yakovenko read the greetings that were sent or personally delivered to Members of the Organizing Committee and participants of the Memorial Academy. Warm memories of Volodymyr Kalyuzhny were shared by his son Yuriy, Myroslav Bratus, and Myroslav Pavlyuk. The apotheosis of a worthy commemoration and celebration of a significant date – the 100th anniversary of the birth of an outstanding Scientist, Teacher, Patriot, Citizen, and Man being were the prophetic words: “We remember, they will remember us too! Ukraine is and will be!”


Volodymyr Antonovych Kalyuzhnyі, outstanding scientist, thermobarogeochemistry, mineralofluidology, fluid inclusions research


Bratus, M. D., Davydenko, M. M., Zinchuk, I. M., Kaliuzhnyi, V. A., Matviienko, O. D., Naumko, I. M., Pirozhyk, N. E., Redko, L. R., & Svoren Y. M. (1994). Fliuidnyi rezhym mineraloutvorennia v litosferi (v zviazku z prohnozuvanniam korysnykh kopalyn). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Ermakov, N. P., & Dolgov, Yu. A. (1979). Termobarogeokhimiya. Moskva: Nedra. [in Russian]

Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (1960). Metody vyvchennia bahatofazovykh vkliuchen u mineralakh. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo AN URSR. [in Ukrainian]

Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (Ed.). (1971). Mineraloutvoriuiuchi fliuidy ta parahenezysy mineraliv pehmatytiv zanoryshevoho typu Ukrainy (ridki vkliuchennia, termobarometriia, heokhimiia). Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Kalyuzhnyy, V. A. (1982). Osnovy ucheniya o mineraloobrazuyushchikh flyuidakh. Kiev: Naukova dumka. (English translation: Kalyuzhnyi, V. A. (1985). Principles of knowledge about mineral forming fluids. In Fluid Inclusions Research: Proceedings of COFFI (Vol. 15, pp. 289–333; Vol. 16, pp. 306–320). [in Russian]

Kolodii, V. V., Boiko, H. Yu., Boichevska, L. T., Bratus, M. D., Velychko, N. Z., Harasymchuk, V. Yu., Hnylko, O. M., Danysh, V. V., Dudok, I. V., Zubko, O. S., Kaliuzhnyi, V. A., Kovalyshyn, Z. I., Koltun, Yu. V., Kopach, I. P., Krupskyi, Yu. Z., Osadchyi, V. H., Kurovets, I. M., Lyzun, S. O., Naumko, I. M., . . . Shcherba, O. S. (2004). Karpatska naftohazonosna provintsiia. Lviv; Kyiv: Ukrainskyi vydavnychyi tsentr. [in Ukrainian]

Matkovskyi, O., Naumko, I., Pavlun, M., & Slyvko, Ye. (2021). Termobaroheokhimiia v Ukraini. Lviv: Prostir-M. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M. (2002). Korotkyi narys naukovoi, naukovo-orhanizatsiinoi, pedahohichnoi ta hromadskoi diialnosti V. A. Kaliuzhnoho. In Volodymyr Antonovych Kaliuzhnyi. Do 80-richchia vid dnia narodzhennia (M. I. Pavliuk, Ed.; I. M. Naumko, L. F. Telepko, Compilers) (pp. 3–8). Lviv: IHHHK NAN Ukrainy ta NAK “Naftohaz Ukrainy”. [in Ukrainian]

Roedder, E. (1984). Fluid inclusions [Monograph]. Reviews in Mineralogy, 12, 1–644.

Sorby, H. C. (1858). On the Microscopic, Structure of Crystals, Indicating the Origin of Minerals and Rocks. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 14(1), 453–500.

Vynar, O. M., Kaliuzhnyi, V. A., Naumko, I. M., & Matviienko, O. D. (1987). Mineraloutvoriuiuchi fliuidy postmahmatychnykh utvoren hranitoidiv Ukrainskoho shchyta. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Zinchuk, I. N., Kalyuzhnyy, V. A., & Shchiritsa, A. S. (1984). Flyuidnyy rezhim mineraloobrazovaniya Tsentralnogo Donbassa. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 54–65

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 54–65


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


It was established that in order to avoid errors in the interpretation of paleotectonic conditions of salt formation based on fluid inclusions in halite, the primary stage of the research should be the genetic identification of the sedimentation textures of halite and fluid inclusions in this mineral. For the thermometric study of inclusions and to determine the depth of the sedimentation basin based on the obtained data, only thermal test chambers are suitable which provide the possibility of observing groups of inclusions in different zones of sedimentary halite, as, for example, in the micro thermal test chamber designed by Prof. V. A. Kalyuzhny.

In the course of the research, the equipment of the thermometric method, which is based on the use of a microthermal test chamber designed by V. A. Kalyuzhny, was modernized. In particular, the material of the thermal chamber (stainless steel) was replaced with copper, which made it possible to avoid excessive thermal gradients into chamber and to increase the permissible heating rate by 20 times due to the higher thermal conductivity of copper. For the same purpose, the glass optical windows of the camera were replaced with leukosapphire windows, which have a much higher thermal conductivity. The measuring system of the installation is made on a miniature platinum resistance thermometer with an electronic measuring unit. These improvements made it possible to achieve high system stability and good reproducibility of measurement results.

Using the thermometric method, it was established that the temperature of sedimentation at the bottom of the Badenian salt basin of the Carpathian region was 19.5–20.5; 20.0–22.0; 24.0–26.0 °C, and on the surface of the brine was 34.0–36.0 °C. On this basis, a model of the basin with a pronounced thermocline and a total thickness of the water column of up to 30 meters was built, which is the most likely to establish the features of sedimentation. Crystallization of halite at different depths in basins with a thermocline can explain the presence of so-called “low-temperature” (24.0–25.0 °C) and “high-temperature” (37.8–42.6 °C) bottom halite in a number of ancient salt-bearing basins.


halite, fluid inclusions, thermometric method, thermal chamber, homogenization temperature


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Benison, K. C., & Goldstein, R. H. (1999). Permian paleoclimate data from fluid inclusions in halite. Chemical Geology, 154(1–4), 113–132.

Galamay, A. R., Bukowski, K., Sydor, D. V., & Meng, F. (2020). The ultramicrochemical analyses (UMCA) of fluid inclusions in halite and experimental research to improve the accuracy of measurement. Minerals, 10(9), 823.

Galamay, A. R., Meng, F., Bukowski, K., Lyubchak, A., Zhang, Y., & Ni, P. (2019). Calculation of salt basin depth using fluid inclusions in halite from the Ordovician Ordos Basin in China. Geological Quarterly, 63(3), 619–628.

Halamai, A. R. (2001). Fizyko-khimichni umovy formuvannia badenskykh evaporytovykh vidkladiv Karpatskoho rehionu [Candidateʼs thesis]. Instytut heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy. Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Halamai, A., Sydor, D., & Liubchak, O. (2014). Osoblyvosti poiavy hazovoi fazy v odnofazovykh ridkykh vkliuchenniakh u haliti (dlia vyznachennia temperatury yoho krystalizatsii). In Mineralohiia: sohodennia i maibuttia: materialy VIII naukovykh chytan imeni akademika Yevhena Lazarenka (prysviacheno 150-richchiu zasnuvannia kafedry mineralohii u Lvivskomu universyteti) (pp. 34–36). Lviv; Chynadiieve. [in Ukrainian]

Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (1960). Metody vyvchennia bahatofazovykh vkliuchen u mineralakh. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo AN URSR. [in Ukrainian]

Khrushchov, D. P. (1980). Litologiya i geokhimiya galogennykh formatsiy Predkarpatskogo progiba. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Korenevskiy, S. M., Zakharova, V. M., & Shamakhov, V. A. (1977). Miotsenovyye galogennyye formatsii predgoriy Karpat. Leningrad: Nedra. [in Russian]

Kovalevich, V. M. (1978). Fiziko-khimicheskiye usloviya formirovaniya soley Stebnikskogo kaliynogo mestorozhdeniya. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kovalevych, V., Paul, J., & Peryt, T. M. (2009). Fluid inclusions in the halite from the Röt (Lower Triassic) salt deposit in Central Germany: evidence for seawater chemistry and conditions of salt deposition and recrystallization. Carbonates and Evaporates, 24(1), 45–57.

Lowenstein, T. K., Li, J., & Brown, C. B. (1998). Paleotemperatures from fluid inclusions in halite: method verification and a 100,000 year paleotemperature record, Death Valley, CA. Chemical Geology, 150(3–4), 223–245.

Meng, F., Ni, P., Schiffbauer, J. D., Yuan, X., Zhou, C., Wang, Y., & Xia, M. (2011). Ediacaran seawater temperature: Evidence from inclusions of Sinian halite. Precambrian Research, 184(1–4), 63–69.

Meng, F., Zhang, Y., Galamay, A. R., Bukowski, K., Ni, P., Xing, E., & Ji, L. (2018). Ordovician seawater composition: evidence from fluid inclusions in halite. Geological Quarterly, 62(2), 344–352.

Petrichenko, O. Y. (1988). Fiziko-khimicheskiye usloviya osadkoobrazovaniya v drevnikh solerodnykh basseynakh. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

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Sirota, I., Enzel, Y., & Lensky, N. G. (2017). Temperature seasonality control on modern halite layers in the Dead Sea: In situ observations. GSA Bulletin, 129(9–10), 1181–1194.

Sydor, D. V., Halamai, A. R., & Meng, F. (2018). Pirotynova mineralizatsiia u halohennykh vidkladakh Verkhnokamskoho rodovyshcha kaliino-mahniievykh solei (termobaroheokhimichni doslidzhennia). Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 68(2), 52–61. [in Ukrainian]

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Xu, Y., Liu, C., Cao, Y., & Zhang, H. (2018). Quantitative temperature recovery from middle Eocene halite fluid inclusions in the easternmost Tethys realm. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 108, 173–182.

Zambito, J. J., & Benison, K. C. (2013). Extremely high temperatures and paleoclimate trends recorded in Permian ephemeral lake halite. Geology, 41(5), 587–590.

Zhang, H., Lü, F., Mischke, S., Fan, M., Zhang, F., & Liu, C. (2017). Halite fluid inclusions and the late Aptian sea surface temperatures of the Congo Basin, northern South Atlantic Ocean. Cretaceous Research, 71, 85–95.

Zhao, X., Zhao, Y., Wang, M., Hu, Y., Liu, C., & Zhang, H. (2022). Estimation of the ambient temperatures during the crystallization of halite in the Oligocene salt deposit in the Shulu Sag, Bohaiwan Basin, China. Minerals, 12(4), 410.

Zinchuk, I. M. (2003). Heokhimiia mineraloutvoriuiuchykh rozchyniv zoloto-polimetalevykh rudoproiaviv Tsentralnoho Donbasu (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh) [Candidateʼs thesis]. Instytut heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy. Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 41–53

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 41–53

Yurii KHOKHA, Myroslava YAKOVENKO, Oksana SENIV

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:;


The publication is a review that presents in a concise form information about the chemical composition of living matter components and the mechanisms of their transformations, the result of which is the geopolymers formation. Among geopolymers, humic substances, including humic and fulvic acids, attract our attention. The relevance of this review lies in the importance of understanding multidirectional reactions, the result of which is the secondary polymerization of organic matter chemically active components that have passed the biodegradation barrier at the stage of sedimentation and diagenetic transformations. Humic substances, in their turn, are precursors of kerogen, therefore, an understanding of reaction mechanisms and their products provides complete information about the conditions of various types of kerogen formation, which are characterized by different ability to produce oil and gas. We paid special attention to polyphenols, which have high chemical activity and the ability to react with increasing molecular weight. In addition to the traditional Maillard reaction, among the condensation mechanisms we considered oxidative crosslinking of phenols, oxidative condensation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and esterification of fatty acids with phenols. For each mechanism, the conditions for its implementation and probable contribution to the formation of humic substances are briefly considered. Analysis of probable mechanisms of formation of humic substances showed that condensation reactions can occur under geochemical conditions of sedimentation and early diagenesis. At the same time, their speeds are low, and the precursors necessary for the reactions, formed as a result of biological degradation, are contained in very small concentrations. We conclude that kerogen contains two components – primary, which enters its structure without any significant changes, and secondary, which is the result of a series of complex multidirectional reactions.


organic geochemistry, polycondensation, humic substances, depolymerization, kerogen evolution


Chen, Z., Wu, J., Ma, Y., Wang, P., Gu, Z., & Yang, R. (2018). Biosynthesis, metabolic regulation and bioactivity of phenolic acids in plant food materials. Shipin Kexue/Food Science, 39(7), 321–328.

Durand, B. (1980). Sedimentary organic matter and kerogen. Definition and quantitative importance of kerogen. In B. Durand (Ed.), Kerogen, Insoluble Organic Matter from Sedimentary Rocks (pp. 13–34). Paris: Editions Technip.

Harvey, G. R., & Boran, D. A. (1985). Geochemistry of humic substances in seawater. In D. M. McKnight, G. R. Aiken, R. L. Wershaw, P. MacCarthy (Eds.), Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment and Water: Geochemistry, Isolation and Characterization (pp. 233–247). New York, Chichester: Wiley & Sons.

Harvey, G. R., Boran, D. A., Chesal, L. A., & Tokar, J. M. (1983). The structure of marine fulvic and humic acids. Marine Chemistry, 12(2–3), 119–132.

Hatcher, P. G., Breger, I. A., Maciel, G. E., Szeverenyi, N. M. (1985). Geochemistry of humin. In D. M. McKnight, G. R. Aiken, R. L. Wershaw, P. MacCarthy (Eds.), Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment and Water: Geochemistry, Isolation and Characterization (pp. 275–302). New York, Chichester: Wiley & Sons.

Huc, A. Y., & Durand, B. M. (1977). Occurrence and significance of humic acids in ancient sediments. Fuel, 56(1), 73–80.

Jokic, A., Wang, M. C., Liu, C., Frenkel, A. I., & Huang, P. M. (2004). Integration of the polyphenol and Maillard reactions into a unified abiotic pathway for humification in nature: the role of δ-MnO2. Organic Geochemistry, 35(6), 747–762.

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Maillard, L.C. (1912). Action des acides aminés sur les sucres: formation des mélanoïdines par voie méthodique. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 154, 66–68.

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Schnitzer, M. (1978). Humic substances: chemistry and reactions. In M. Schnitzer & S. U. Khan (Eds.), Developments in Soil Science: Vol. 8. Soil Organic Matter (pp. 1–64). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Stevenson, F. J. (1994). Humus chemistry: genesis, composition, reactions. John Wiley & Sons.

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Vandenbroucke, M. (2003). Kerogen: from types to models of chemical structure. Oil & gas science and technology, 58(2), 243–269.

Vandenbroucke, M., & Largeau, C. (2007). Kerogen origin, evolution and structure. Organic Geochemistry, 38(5), 719–833.

Vandenbroucke, M., Pelet, R., & Debyser, Y. (1985). Geochemistry of humic substances in marine sediments. In D. M. McKnight, G. R. Aiken, R. L. Wershaw, P. MacCarthy (Eds.), Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment and Water: Geochemistry, Isolation and Characterization (pp. 249–273). New York, Chichester: Wiley & Sons.

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Wang, H. Y., Qian, H., & Yao, W. R. (2011). Melanoidins produced by the Maillard reaction: Structure and biological activity. Foodchemistry, 128(3), 573–584.

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 26–40

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 26–40


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


An analysis was made as to the usage of geological-geophysical methods for studying of low-amplitude tectonic dislocations in coal-enclosing massifs. As a result of geophysical researches conducted at coal fields, mine fields and mine workings of the Lviv-Volyn Coal Basin, the methods of field observations by means of natural electromagnetic and electric fields were worked and their results were processed for prediction and diagnostics of tectonic dislocations with a break of continuity and zones of unstressed state. To raise the efficiency of the methods of electromagnetic fields it is recommended to carry out measurements at wide frequency range (from 5 to 50 hz) with orientation of the antenna according to the world sides (azimuthal surveying) and at narrow frequency range (5; 12.5; 17 khz) with the southern orientation of the antenna (frequency sensing). According to azimuthal surveying one can calculate the vector of maximum intensity of electromagnetic radiation. It was ascertained that over distinctive dislocation one can observe the variation in the direction and absolute value of vectors. Displacement of the anomaly of electromagnetic radiation intensity at different frequency range by profile indicates the direction of dipping of the area of displacement of dislocations with a break of continuity. The method of natural electromagnetic impulse field of the Earth fixes both the dislocations, distinguishes by geological-geophysical methods before, and new low-amplitude dislocations and stressed zones.Tectonic dislocations, that are displayed only in Paleozoic deposits, are distinguished by contrast anomalies of electromagnetic radiation in electromagnetic field, but dislocations with a break of continuity that cut the Mesozoic thickness and in most cases are accompanied by zones of rock fracturing in the Cretaceous deposits: by wide destructive anomalies. Plots over worked-out lavas with stressed deformational state are characterized by strongly differential abnormal values of the intensity of natural impulse electromagnetic field of the Earth. The method of natural electric field allows us to detect zones with water-bearing fracturing rocks in the upper part of the geological section. Methods of natural impulse electromagnetic field of the Earth and natural electric field may be used both independently and in the complex with other geophysical methods for detection and tracing of tectonic dislocations and dynamically-unstressed zones. Thus, the optimum apparatus-methodical complex for detection and diagnostics of low-amplitude dislocations with a break of continuity of coal-enclosing series by electromagnetic methods (NIEMF, NEF) was formed and effective methods of field observations, processinf and interpretation of data were developed.


low-amplitude tectonics, natural electric field, impulse electromagnetic field of the Earth, coal-bearing rocks, geophysical profiles


Kurovets, I., Hrytsyk, I., Chepusenko, P., Mykhalchuk, S., & Prykhodko, O. (2019). Vyvchennia maloamplitudnoi tektoniky vuhilnykh rodovyshch metodamy elektromahnitnykh poliv. In Heofizyka i heodynamika: prohnozuvannia ta monitorynh heolohichnoho seredovyshcha: tezy VIII Mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii (Lviv, 24–26 veresnia 2019 r.) (pp. 92–94). Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Kurovets, I. M., Zubko, O. S., Kosianenko, G. P., & Chepusenko, P. S. (2000). Diagnostics of physical state of hydrotechnical constructions of enterprises by electromagnetic methods. In 4th European coal conference (September 26–28, 2000, Ustron, Poland) (pp. 43–44). PIG.

Lysoon, S. O., Kurovets, I. M., & Prytulkа, G. I. (2000). New prognostification technology of low-amplitude tectonic dislocations of coal seams. In 4th European coal conference (September 26–28, 2000, Ustron, Poland) (p. 45). PIG.

Pavliuk, M. I. et al. (2016). Heoekolohichni problemy Zakhodu Ukrainy (na prykladi terytorii Lvivskoi oblasti) (B-II-02-12) [Research report]. Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Zabigaylo, V. E. (1991). K razvitiyu issledovaniy po prognozu maloamplitudnoy tektoniki. In Maloamplitudnaya tektonika. Metody i rezultaty prognozirovaniya: tezisy dokladov (pp. 3–7). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 17–25

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 17–25


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


In 1957, L. G. Tkachuk and D. V. Gurzhiy have singled out the Upper Paleozoic Kuzian suite in the north-western part of the Marmarosh crystalline massif at the Rachiv area. It consists of phyllites, limestones, quartzites and dolomites. The suite is widely distributed in the Dilovets subcover of the Marmarosh nappe at the Rakhiv and Chyvchynian areas. There are two alternative points of view upon the age of the Kuzian suite. Some geologists attribute it to Paleozoic time (Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous), the others attribute its lower part to the Upper Paleozoic, and the upper one: to Triassic. One can notice the existence of the different estimation of the lithological composition and different estimation of the lithological composition and the volume of the Kuzian suite.Thus, in 1970 A. K. Boiko has devided it into Muntselulska (Lower) phyllite-quartzite one of Paleozoic age and Upper (Triassic) phyllite-carbonate one for which he saved the name Kuzian suite. The important is that a stratigraphic interruption was fixed between the above-mentioned units. The phyllite-carbonate Kuzian suite is dated on the basis of transgressive occurrence of the middle Triassic dolomites on it, discovery of the post-Paleozoic mosses in its lower part at the Soimul Mountain, and in the upper one: the complex of spores and pollen of Mesozoic age. Geologists, that do not recognize the idea of belonging of the part of suite to Mesozoic, indicate the next contradiction. If we accept the Mesozoic age of the Kuzian suite, so we must affirm that carbonate series of Middle Triassic-Jurassic were deposited on the massif at the same time, and 5–8 km southerly, the regional metamorphism of the Kuzian suite occurred within that zone (by the way, according to some facts at an interval of 148–178 and 175–181 mln years, and according to another information: at an interval of 196–221 mln years. This remark is not correct because the age of the Kuzian suite is Lower Triassic (251.9–247.2 mln years), but metamorphism occurred much later. In those sections where the Kuzian suite lies on the Muntselulska one, basal conglomerates consisting of pebbles and quartzitic fragments of underling suite are present in its bottom. Rocks of the Muntselulska and Kuzian suite are similar by their metamorphism intensity. For the Mesozoic Kuzian suite the manifestations of the main magmatism are characteristic, unlike the Upper Paleozoic acids. The facts testify to that the Mesozoic Kusian suite is existing, but there is a certain indefinity as to its finer dividing, stratigraphic volume and correlation with deposits of Middle Triassic. To avoid confusion, it is expedient to alter the name of the Mesozoic Kuzian suite and to name it, for example, Neo-Kuzian.


Kuzian, Muntselulska, suite, Triassic, Paleozoic, Marmarosh nappe, Dilovets subcover, metamorphism


Belov, A. A. (1981). Tektonicheskoye razvitiye alpiyskoy skladchatoy zony v paleozoye. Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Boiko, A. K., Ivanchenko, A. I., & Kuriachyi, L. K. (1964). Pro vik kuzynskoi svity Rakhivskoho masyvu. Dopovidi Akademii nauk URSR, 8, 1095–1098. [in Ukrainian]

Boyko, A. K. (1970). Doverkhnepaleozoyskiy kompleks severo-zapadnogo okonchaniya Marmaroshskogo massiva (Vostochnyye Karpaty). Lvov: Izdatelstvo Lvovskogo universiteta. [in Russian]

Boyko, A. K. (1975). Voprosy drevney geologicheskoy istorii Vostochnykh i Zapadnykh Karpat i radiometricheskoye datirovaniye. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Danіlovich, Yu. R. (1989). Metamorfizm kristallicheskogo fundamenta i domelovogo chekhla Ukrainskikh Karpat. In Geologiya Sovetskikh Karpat: sbornik nauchnykh trudov (pp. 48–56). Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Gabinet, M. P., Kulchitskiy, Ya. O., & Matkovskiy, O. I. (1976). Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye Ukrainskikh Karpat (Part 2). Lvov: Vyshcha shkola. [in Russian]

Glushko, V. V., & Kruglov, S. S. (Eds.). (1971). Geologicheskoye stroyeniye i goryuchiye iskopayemyye Ukrainskikh Karpat. Trudy UkrNIGRI, 25. [in Russian]

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Lashmanov, V. I. (1973). K stratigrafii drevnemezozoyskikh otlozheniy Marmaroshskogo massiva. Geologicheskiy sbornik Lvovskogo geologicheskogo obshchestva, 14, 28–34. [in Russian]

Lyashkevich, Z. M., Medvedev, A. P., Krupskiy, Yu. Z., Varichev, A. S., Timoshchuk, V. R., & Stupka, O. O. (1995). Tektono-magmaticheskaya evolyutsiya Karpat. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Matkovskiy, O. I., Malayeva, I. P., & Akimova, K. G. (1973). Stratiformnyye kolchedan-polimetallicheskiye mestorozhdeniya i rudoproyavleniya v Marmaroshskom massive Vostochnykh Karpat. Geologicheskiy sbornik Lvovskogo geologicheskogo obshchestva, 4, 36–48. [in Russian]

Matskiv, B. V., Pukach, B. D., Vorobkanych, V. M., Pastukhanov, S. V., & Hnylko, O. M. (2009). Derzhavna heolohichna karta Ukrainy. Masshtab 1 : 200 000. Karpatska seriia.  Arkushi: M-34-XXXVI (Khust), L-34-VI (Baia-Mare), M-35-XXXI (Nadvirna), L-35-I (Visheu-De-Sus). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Nenchuk, I. F. (1967). O metamorfizme porod kuzinskoy svity Rakhovskogo massiva. In Voprosy geologii Karpat (pp. 165–167). Lvov: Izdatelstvo Lvovskogo universiteta. [in Russian]

Slavin, V. I. (1963). Triasovyye i yurskiye otlozheniya Vostochnykh Karpat i Pannonskogo sredinnogo massiva. Moskva: Gosgeoltekhizdat. [in Russian]

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Tkachuk, L. H., & Danilovych, Yu. R. (1965). Metamorfizm krystalichnykh slantsiv Skhidnykh Ukrainskykh Karpat. Heolohichnyi zhurnal AN URSR, 25(6). [in Ukrainian]

Tkachuk, L. G., & Gurzhiy, D. V. (1957). Rakhovskiy kristallicheskiy massiv. Kiev: Izdatelstvo AN USSR. [in Russian]

Voloshin, A. A. (1981). Geologicheskoye stroyeniye i rudonosnost severo-zapadnogo okonchaniya Marmaroshskogo massiva. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023 > 5–16

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 5–16

Yaroslav LAZARUK

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


The object of research was the Ustynivka area, which is located in the north-eastern part of the Dnipro-Donets basin on the border between the northern board and axial part of the region.

The geological structure of the area is illuminated from positions of gravitational tectogenesis. Two echelons of brachianticlinal uplifts, genetically related to the Krasnoritsk and Muratove-Tuba discharges, have been identified in the Carboniferous deposits. They were formed in nonconsolidated strata under conditions of stretching and rapid lowering of the Dnipro-Donets graben. Seismic surveys have revealed seven anticlines. Their feature is the orientation of structures along arcuate tectonic faults, asymmetry and displacement of anticlines with a depth to the southwest. According to the geomorphological features of the river valley of the Siverskyi Donets, a new uplift is predicted in the lowered block of the Tuba fault.

In the Voronove anticline, three gas deposits have been established in the Bashkirian stratum. Nearby are Borivske, Muratove, Yevgeniivka, Krasnopopivka and other gas-condensate fields. Therefore, the gravigenic structures of the Ustynivka area are promising for the discovery of new deposits. Promising horizons of the Bashkirian stratum are at shallow depths: from 2 to 2.5 km. Our estimated gas reserves and resources of the Ustynivka area are 262 and 2100 million m3, respectively.

Recommendations are given to clarify the form of gravigenic tectonic faults and related anticlines. The tasks for detailed seismic surveys and drilling are defined. The location of exploration and prospecting boreholes is proposed. Considering the displacement of the vaults of gravigenic structures with depth, to open the productive stratum in the apical parts of the uplifts, we recommend drilling inclined boreholes in the southwestern direction. Tasks for industrial development of deposits of Voronove structure are defined.


gas-bearing prospects, Dnipro-Donets basin, gravitational structures, oil and gas traps, hydrocarbon reserves


Babadagly, V. A., Lazaruk, Ya. G., Kucheruk, E. V., & Kelbas, B. I. (1981). Osobennosti geologicheskogo stroyeniya zony melkoy skladchatosti Severnogo Donbassa. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1, 34–39. [in Russian]

Ivaniuta, M. M. (Ed.). (1998). Atlas rodovyshch nafty i hazu Ukrainy (Vol. 1). Lviv: Tsentr Yevropy. [in Ukrainian]

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Myroshnychenko, R., Polokhov, V., & Borodulin, Ye. (2018). Zvit pro rezultaty seismorozviduvalnykh robit 2D na Ustynivskii diliantsi Sievierodonetskoi ploshchi. Prydniprovska heofizychna rozviduvalna ekspedytsiia DHP “Ukrheofizyka”. Novomoskovsk. [in Ukrainian]

Prior, D. B., & Coleman, J. M. (1982). Active slides and flows in underconsolidated marine sediments on the slopes of the Mississippi delta. In S. Saxov & J. K. Nieuwenhuis (Eds.), Marine slides and other mass movements (pp. 21–49). New York: Plenum press.

Rudko H. I., Liakhu, M. V., Lovyniukov, V. I., Bahniuk, M. M., & Hryhil, V. H. (2016). Pidrakhunok zapasiv nafty i hazu. Kyiv: Bukrek. [in Ukrainian]

Somin, O., Aksonov, V., & Pysmennyi, I. (2016). Utochnenyi proiekt promyslovoi rozrobky Borivskoho hazokondensatnoho rodovyshcha [Research report]. UkrNDIHaz PAT “Ukrhazvydobuvannia”. Kharkiv. [in Ukrainian]

Tovstiuk, Z. M., Yefimenko, T. A., & Titarenko, O. V. (2014). Novitnia rozlomno-blokova tektonika Dniprovsko-Donetskoi zapadyny. Ukrainskyi zhurnal dystantsiinoho zonduvannia Zemli, 2, 4–13. [in Ukrainian]

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (187–188) 2022 > 115–126

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (187–188) 2022, 115–126.

Halyna MEDVID1, Oleg СHEBAN2, Maria KOST’1, Olga TELEGUZ1, Vasyl HARASYMCHUK1, Iryna SAKHNYUK1, Orysia MAYKUT1, Solomia KALMUK1

1 Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:
2 LLC “Stryinaftogaz”, Stryi, Lviv Region, Ukraine, e-mail:


A study of natural waters within the influence of the Dobrivlyany gas condensate field, located in the Dobryany and Dobrivlyany area village councils of the Stryi district of the Lviv Region of Ukraine, was conducted.

The purpose of the work is to evaluate the geochemical indicators of natural waters based on our own research, to find out the role of natural and man-made factors in the formation of the chemical composition of waters.

The objects of the research are surface waters and groundwaters within the influence of the Dobrivlyany gas condensate field.

Research results. In the research area, as well as in the Bilche-Volytsia zone in general, there are unfavorable conditions for active water exchange and the formation of fresh infiltration waters, since the upper part of the geological section is characterized by clayey Neogene deposits. The depth of penetration of fresh hydrocarbonate-calcium waters here does not exceed 70 m. The small thickness of the zone of active water exchange is one of the indicators of difficult water exchange in the subsoil, therefore, favourable conditions for the preservation of hydrocarbon deposits.

As a result of exploratory work, the Dobrivlyany gas condensate field was opened in 2016. During 2016–2019, 7 boreholes were drilled, and industrial gas inflows were received from horizons LD-9, LD-12, and N1kr+K2. In tectonic terms, the deposit is confined to the northwestern part of the Kosiv-Ugersko subzone of the Bilche-Volytsia zone of the Carpathian Foredeep.

Observation of the macro component composition of groundwater from the wells of the Dobrivlyany gas condensate field indicates the stability of the hydrodynamic conditions of the deposit and, accordingly, the low variability of their geochemical characteristics. Direct hydrogeochemical zonation is clearly manifested in the increase in water mineralization with depth: for the LD-9 horizon at depths of 800–840 m, it varies within the range of 34.74–48.55 g/dm3, for LD-12 at depths of 995–1010 m – 33.82–73.70 g/dm3 and for N1kr+K2 at 1131–1158 m – 67.49–100.31 g/dm3. The content of Br and J doubles with depth. All waters are of the chloride-calcium type (according to Sulin), and genetic indicators vary within narrow limits (rNa/rCl – 0.82–0.91; Cl/Br – 216–315; rSO4 ∙ 100/rCl – 0.003–0.5) and indicate their thalassogenic sedimentogenic origin. The analysis of research results showed that underground waters belong to a single hydrodynamic system, and are characterized by the same type of water according to their chemical composition.

According to the qualitative characteristics of groundwater from an ecological borehole and a well in the Dobrivlyany village remain clean and meets regulatory requirements for drinking water. At the same time, water from a well in Vivnya village is characterized by a high content of nitrates (2.28 maximum permissible concentration), which is caused by the location of the pig complex “Halychyna-Zakhid” LLC on the outskirts. Increased content of organic substances in the waters of two wells of the Railiv village was also established, in which the permanganate oxidizability reaches 1.08–1.24 maximum permissible concentration, and, according to Hygienic requirements for drinking water intended for human consumption, is unfit for consumption. The waters of the Kolodnytsia River are chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium-calcium (calcium-sodium) in composition, while the waters of the Stryi River and the Zhizhava River are calcium bicarbonate.


surface waters, groundwaters, ecological and geochemical characteristic, Dobrivlyany gas condensate field


Babinets, A. Ye., & Malskaya, R. V. (1975). Geokhimiya mineralizovannikh vod Predkarpatya. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Harasymchuk, V., Medvid, H., Kost, M., & Telehuz, O. (2019) Paleo- ta suchasni hidroheolohichni umovy Bilche-Volytskoi zony Karpatskoi naftohazonosnoi provintsii. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2(179), 68–83. [in Ukrainian]

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Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (187–188) 2022 > 103–114

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (187–188) 2022, 103–114.

Ihor NAUMKO1, Halyna ZANKOVYCH1, Oksana KOКHAN1, Olexandеr VOVK2, Yaroslav KUZEMKO1, Bohdan SAКHNO1, Roman SERKIZ3

1 Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:
2 Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, Ukraine, е-mail:
3 Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine, е-mail:


The construction of the new Beskydy railway tunnel, which revealed the indigenous deposits of the Krosno formation of the Ukrainian Carpathians, provided an opportunity to obtain new results from the study of another prospective oil and gas-bearing areas of the flysch formation within the Krosno structural-facies unit. There is a second tunnel in length in Ukraine and passes under the Verkhovyna watershed ridge of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Its section is represented by the rocks of the Krosno formation, namely the stratification of sandstones, argillites and silt stones. There are two fracture zones have been indentified here, in which developed veinle-impregnated mineralization of ore (sulfides) and non-ore (calcite and quartz type of the “Marmarosh diamonds”) minerals. Calcite and quartz formas monominerals veins and in paragenesis calcite-quartz type of the “Marmarosh diamonds” ‒ sulfides. Quartz occurs in the form of splice sand well-faceted crystals, transparent, in yellow, brown, black, green colour. Calcite of a milky, translucent colour in the form of veins, veinlets, impregnation, powder on quartz, druz. Contains significant impurities of magnesium, manganese and iron which means the presence of a rhodochrosite-magnesite-siderite component. Hydrocarbon fluids are present in all calcite and quartz crystals of the “Marmarosh diamonds” type. By chemical composition, it is methane with impurities of higher hydrocarbons (up to hexane). Sometimes the manifestations of the outflow of a black substance with the smell of oil from the cracks in the veinlet-impregnated mineralization are recorded studied rock complexes of the flysch formation of the Krosno zone of the Ukrainian Carpathians (construction area of the new branch of the Beskydy railway tunnel), which acquires an important genetic significance.


veinlet-impregnated mineralization, calcite, “Marmarosh diamonds”, new Beskydy railway tunnel, Krosno zone, Ukrainian Carpathians


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