Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (189–190) 2023, 92–112
Myroslav PODOLSKY, Dmytro BRYK, Lesia KULCHYTSKA-ZHYHAILOInstitute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com
The energy components of sustainable development in the countries of the European Union have been analyzed, in particular according to goal 7 “Affordable and clean energy”, directions of the European Green Deal, taking into consideration synergies and compromises, as well as cross-cutting factors in achieving the specified indicators. It is shown that in 2019, the EU’s energy dependence on energy imports by types of fuel was: oil and oil products – more than 90 %, natural gas – about 80 %, solid fossil fuels – about 40 %. During 2014–2019, the decrease in the use of solid fuels (−4.9 %) was compensated by the increase in the use of renewable energy sources and biofuels (+2 %), as well as by the increase in the use of natural gas (+3.4 %), which could not cause a significant reduction in the share of fossil fuel use and a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gas – carbon dioxide CO2, at the same time the total dependence of EU countries on fuel imports increased from 54.4 to 60.7 % (by 6.3 %), which negatively affects the achievement of energy indicators of sustainable development. In 2019, the total share of renewable energy sources was 19.7 % with an ambitious goal of reaching 32 % in 2030.
The energy components of sustainable development in Ukraine are analyzed. It is shown that, in particular, according to goal 7 “Affordable and clean energy”, the progress of the specified indicators is characterized by a low probability of achievement; in 2019, the share of coal imports in Ukraine was 68.6 %, oil – 76.7 %, natural gas – 45.1 %, and the total share of imports of primary energy resources by 2030 should be reduced to a level of not less than 12 % and the share of energy from renewable sources should reach 17 %.
Based on a comparison of the energy components of sustainable development in the countries of the European Union and in Ukraine, the main requirements for energy indicators and tasks of sustainable development for Ukraine and its regions are proposed. These requirements differ in the addition of energy indicators and tasks of sustainable development in Ukraine with indicators that are monitored in the countries of the European Union and were not used in Ukraine before, as well as the introduction of indicators that take into consideration the energy characteristics of the regions of Ukraine. An adaptive structure of energy tasks and indicators for the regions of Ukraine is proposed.
sustainable development goals, energy tasks and indicators, sustainable energy
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