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CLAY MINERALS FROM ROCK SALT OF BAHADUR KHEL FORMATION, EOCENE, PAKISTAN

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 87-100


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 87-100.

Index DOI: 10.15407/ggcm2020.01.087

Yaroslava YAREMCHUK, Serhiy VOVNYUK

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, е-mail: slava.yaremchuk@gmail.com

Mohammad TARIQ

Baluchistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Quetta, Pakistan

Abstract

According to studies of the pelitic fraction of the water-insoluble residue of 10 samples of Eocene rock salt of the Bahadur Khel Formation (Pakistan), it was determined that the clay minerals association contains swelling chlorite, chlorite-smectite, illite and kaolinite; chlorite was identified in three samples. Non-clay minerals are represented by quartz, dolomite, less often – magnesite; one sample contains impurities of both carbonates. Swelling chlorite, chlorite and mixed-layer minerals are trioctahedral, and illite and kaolinite are dioctahedral. All identified clay minerals, with the exception of kaolinite, are authigenic.

The presence of swelling chlorite in Eocene rock salt is probably caused by changes in the concentration of brines in the basin against the background of complex geological processes of this era (climate change from thermal maximum to global cooling, changes in water circulation in oceans, changes in isotopic composition of carbonates).

The association of clay minerals of Eocene rock salt, taking into account the peculiarities of its composition and the presence of swelling chlorite in it, we attributed to that formed during the SO4-rich seawater chemical type. This is also confirmed by two finds of swelling chlorite in the Triassic evaporites (rock salt of the Western Moroccan Basin, Midland marl) described in the literature, which are known to have been deposited from SO4-rich seawater.

The presence of kaolinite in almost all samples is caused by its largest accumulation in sediments of this time period – terrigenous kaolinite came in large quantities from dry land and did not transform even at the stage halite precipitation.

Keywords

clay minerals, swelling chlorite, rock salt, Eocene, Bahadur Khel Salt, Pakistan.

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GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF RIVER AND GROUND WATERS (OUTER ZONE OF THE PRECARPATHIAN DEEP)

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 76-86


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 76-86.

Index DOI: 10.15407/ggcm2020.01.076

Maria KOST’, Halyna MEDVID, Vasyl HARASYMCHUK,Olga TELEGUZ, Iryna SAKHNYUK, Orysia MAYKUT

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Geochemical peculiarities of river and groundwaters of the Outer zone of the Precarpathian deep have been established. It is revealed that the main feature of the distribution of salt composition indicators in the Dniester River and its influxes is hydrochemical zonality, which does not depend on the flow direction of the rivers, but is consistent with the physics-geographical and geological features of the area to which the man-made factor is imposed.

There is an increase in concentrations of sulfate, calcium in the left bank confluent of the river Shchyrka. The waters from the Tysmenytsya, Kolodnitsa and Dniester rivers in the village Kolodrubi are characterized by the highest amounts of sodium and chlorides and are sodium chloride-hydrocarbonate composition. The water composition of the Dniester River (Rozvadiv village), its confluents Bystrytsia and Letnyanka are hydrocarbonate calcium (sodium-magnesium-calcium), Shchyrka, Vereshchitsa – sulfate-hydrocarbonate calcium (magnesium-calcium). The index of biochemical oxygen consumption for 5 days in the waters of Tysmenytsya River reached 4.5 mg O2/dm3, while in other rivers it was 0.70‒3.20 mg O2/dm3. The content of O2 soluble in the waters of the river Vereshchytsya was 0.29 mg/dm3, the value of biochemical oxygen consumption was 11.4 mg O2/dm3.

In the chemical composition of river waters, there is an increase in the concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions from the left bank to the right bank confluents of the Dniester. In the left-bank confluents, in the chemical composition of water dominate the contents of calcium and hydrocarbons ions.

The heterogeneity of the lithological composition, the instability of the thickness of the aquifer both in the horizontal and vertical directions, and the different technogenic influence form the irregularity of pollution and its local distribution in groundwater.

Keywords

river waters, groundwaters, geochemical features, geochemical zonality, Outer zone, Precarpathian deep.

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GEOCHEMISTRY AND THERMOBAROMOMETRY OF MINERAL-FORMING FLUIDS AND THERMOBAROGEOCHEMISTRY OF EVAPORITES – WORLD-FAMOUS SCIENTIFIC SCHOOLS

Home > Archive > No. 1 (182) 2020 > 62-75


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (182) 2020, 62-75.

Index DOI: 10.15407/ggcm2020.01.062

Ihor NAUMKO, Myroslav PAVLYUK, Andriy POBEREZHSKYY

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Fundamental and applied achievements in the fields of geochemistry and thermobarometry of mineral-forming fluids and thermobarogeochemistry of evaporites are summarized as the basis of the corresponding world-famous scientific thermobarogeochemical schools established by professors V. A. Kalyuzhny and O. Yo. Petrychenko at the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the basis of creative development of ideas of predecessors with the support of academicians Ye. K. Lazarenko, V. S. Sobolyev, H. N. Dolenko. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of schools to geological science, which is determined by the formed knowledge base on geochemical and thermobaric parameters of fluid environments of mineral-ore- naphthidogenesis in the Earth’s lithosphere (according to data of fluid inclusions research). In this context, in view of the enormous array of available data, the composition, physicochemical properties, genesis of fluids of the upper mantle and crust are briefly discussed and it is shown that the course of processes of petro-, mineral-, ore-, naphthidogenesis and formation fields of hydrocarbon, ore and non-ore minerals is determined by the peculiarities of degassing (defluidization) of the Earth and its influence on the conversion of carbon compounds during terrigenous, organogenic, hemogenic sedimentation and on the processes of diagenesis of sediments of various origins. The obtained data on the reproduction of the evolution of the fluid regime of rock complexes contribute to solving the fundamental problem of geochemistry of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbon-hydrogen matter) and deep (endogenous) fluid flows in the Earth’s lithosphere as an important basis for mineralofluidological model of the planet. They played a decisive role in substantiating at the Institute on the basis of abiogenic-biogenic dualism universal approaches to the processes of synthesis and genesis of natural hydrocarbons in the form of a new fundamental paradigm of oil and gas geology and geochemistry, the polygenesis of natural hydrocarbons in the Earth’s bowels, which increases the potential of oil and gas resources of promising regions, including Ukraine. This creates the preconditions for the identification of promising rock complexes for hydrocarbon, ore and non-ore minerals by applying the obtained fundamental thermobarogeochemical data in forecasting, exploration and operational practice on the basis of developing of new non-traditional geotechnologies for assessment and exploration of hydrocarbons and minerals.

Keywords

fluid inclusions, geochemistry, thermobarometry, fluids, fluid media, mineral-ore-naphthidogenesis, Earth’s lithosphere.

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Naumko, I. (2011). Mineralofliuidolohiia v Instytuti heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (154–155), 114–115. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. (2017). Vnesok akademika Hryhoriia Nazarovycha Dolenka u rozvytok termobaroheokhimii–mineralofliuidolohii v Instytuti heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (170–171), 120–121. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. (2019). Pro litofliuidotermodynamichnu systemu v heolohii i heokhimii. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2 (179), 28–36. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., Bekesha, S. M., & Svoren, Y. M. (2008). Fliuidy hlybynnykh horyzontiv litosfery: zviazok z rodovyshchamy nafty i hazu u zemnii kori (za danymy vyvchennia vkliuchen u mineralakh hlybynnoho pokhodzhennia). Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 8, 117–120. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Bratus, M., Dudok, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Kovalyshyn, Z., Sakhno, B., Svoren, Y., & Telepko, L. (2004). Fliuidnyi rezhym katahenno-hidrotermalnoho protsesu periodu formuvannia zhylnoi, prozhylkovoi i prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii v osadovykh tovshchakh. In V. V. Kolodii (Red.), Karpatska naftohazonosna provintsiia (s. 308–345). Lviv; Kyiv: Ukrainskyi vydavnychyi tsentr. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Bratus, M., Zinchuk, I., Svoren, Y., Batsevych, N., Vovk, O., Zankovych, H., Redko, L., Sakhno, B., Beletska, Yu., Druchok, L., Matviishyn, Z., Telepko, L., Bondar, R., Brynskyi, T., Zubyk, M., Sava, N., & Stepaniuk, V. (2019). Letki spoluky fliuidnykh vkliuchen i zakrytykh por porid yak vazhlyvyi pokaznyk fliuidonasychenosti nadr (na prykladi porodno-rudnykh kompleksiv Ukrainy). In Heofizyka i heodynamika: prohnozuvannia ta monitorynh heolohichnoho seredovyshcha (s. 134–136). Lviv: Rastr-7. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., & Kaliuzhnyi, V. A. (2001). Pidsumky ta perspektyvy doslidzhen termobarometrii i heokhimii paleofliuidiv litosfery (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2, 162–175. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Bratus, M., Zinchuk, I., Kovalyshyn, Z., Matviienko, O., Redko, L., & Svoren, Y. (2000). Uchennia pro mineralotvorni fliuidy: priorytetni zavdannia rozvytku na suchasnomu etapi. Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 50 (2), 22–30. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I., Kaliuzhnyi, V., Svoren, Y., Zinchuk, I., Bekesha, S., Redko, L., Sakhno, B., Druchok, L., Telepko, L., Beletska, Yu., Matviishyn, Z., Sava, N., Bondar, R., & Stepaniuk, V. (2007). Fliuidy postsedymentohennykh protsesiv v osadovykh ta osadovo-vulkanohennykh verstvakh pivdenno-zakhidnoi okrainy Skhidnoievropeiskoi platformy i prylehlykh heostruktur (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4, 63–94. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, І. М., Kovalyshyn, Z. I., Svoren’, J. M., Sakhno, B. Е., & Telepko, L. F. (1999). Towards forming conditions of veinlet mineralization in sedimentary oil- and gas- bearing layers of Carpathian region (obtained by data of fluid inclusions research). Геологія і геохімія горючих копалин, 3 (108), 83–91.

Naumko, І. М., Кurovets’, І. М., Zubyk, М. І., Batsevych, N. V., Sakhno, B. Е., & Chepusenko, P. S. (2017). Hydrocarbon compounds and plausible mechanism of gas generation in “shale” gas prospective Silurian deposits of Lviv Paleozoic depression. Geodynamics, 1 (22), 26–41.

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BOWELS OF THE EARTH – NATURAL PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL REACTOR: IS THE SEARCH FOR NATURAL METHANE A FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE OR A TECHNICAL PROBLEM?

Home > Archive > No. 4 (181) 2019 > 104-115


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 4 (181) 2019, 104-115.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Yosyp Svoren

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

It is shown that the hypothesis of organic origin of hydrocarbons doesn’t respond to the presence of a dominant concentration of methane in sediments, deposits, “shale’ series and so on, hence prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbon deposits in them are conducted in most cases intuitively, but not on the fundamental scientific basis.

Experimental studies based on the heating of slightly modified organic matter (peat) show that up to 200 °C in the process of its decomposition the following gases were delivered (vol. %): CO2 = 49.5; H2O = 49.3; CH4, C2H6, C3H8, N2, H2, SO2, H2S within 1.2 % in total.

It is confirmed that there is no coal methane, there is no shale gas-methane, but there is methane of one genesis with slightly different isotope composition of carbon, but synthesized according to the same mechanism in the high-thermobaric processes that after migration into the earth’s crust accumulated in the form of deposits in cavities of coal seams, terrigenous units, sandstones and so on.

Prospecting for pool-deposits of hydrocarbons should be carried out in conformity with developed “new technology of determination of prospects for oil and gas presence in the local area”, “physical-chemical model of synthesis of hydrocarbons and the way of geochemical searching for their occurrences”, “new theory of hydrocarbon synthesis and genesis in the earth’s lithosphere: abiogenic-biogenic dualism”.

Keywords

fluid inclusions, minerals, methane, origin of hydrocarbons, exploration, pool-deposits, new technologies.

REFERENCES

Davydenko, M. M., & Svoren, Y. M. (1994). Sposib lokalnoho prohnozuvannia zbahachenykh dilianok zolotorudnykh poliv. Promyslova vlasnist. Ofitsiinyi biuleten, 3. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M. (2006). Fliuidnyi rezhym mineralohenezu porodno-rudnykh kompleksiv Ukrainy (za vkliuchenniamy u mineralakh typovykh parahenezysiv). (Extended abstract of Doctorʼs thesis). Instytut heolohii i heokhimii horiuchykh kopalyn NAN Ukrainy, Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, І. М., Кurovets’, І. М., Zubyk, М. І., Batsevych, N. V., Sakhno, B. Е., & Chepusenko, P. S. (2017). Hydrocarbon compounds and plausible mechanism of gas generation in “shale” gas prospective Silurian deposits of Lviv Paleozoic depression. Geodynamics, 1 (22), 26–41.

Naumko, I. M., Pavliuk, M. I., Svoren, I. M., Zubyk, M. I. (2016). Hazy vuhilnykh rodovyshch: nove vyrishennia problemy syntezu–henezysu metanu. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 3, 61–68. [in Ukrainian]

Naumko, I. M., & Svoren, I. M. (2003). O vazhnosti glubinnogo vysokotemperaturnogo flyuida v sozdanii usloviy dlya formirovaniya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh uglevodorodov v zemnoy kore. In Novyye idei v naukakh o Zemle: Materialy VI Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii (Moskva. 8–12 aprelya 2003 g.) (T. 1. s. 249). Moskva. [in Russian]

Naumko, I., & Svoren, I. (2014). Novi tekhnolohii poshukiv korysnykh kopalyn, osnovani na doslidzhenniakh fliuidnykh vkliuchen u mineralakh. In Aktualnyye problemy poiskovoy i ekologicheskoy geokhimii: Sbornik tezisov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii (Kiyev. 1–2 iyulya 2014 g.) (s. 23–25). Kiev: Interservis. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, I. M. (1984). Primesi gazov v kristallakh mineralov i drugikh tverdykh telakh, ikh sposoby izvlecheniya, sostav, forma nakhozhdeniya i vliyaniye na svoystva veshchestv. (Extended abstract of candidateʼs thesis). Institut geologii i geokhimii goryuchikh iskopayemykh AN USSR, Lvov. [in Russian]

Svoren, Y. M. (1992). Pytannia teorii henezysu pryrodnykh vuhlevodniv ta shliakhy poshuku yikh pokladiv. In Tektohenez i naftohazonosnist nadr Ukrainy: tezy dopovidei naukovoi narady (20–22 zhovtnia 1992 r.) (s. 143–145). Lviv. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M. (2008). Termobarometriia i heokhimiia haziv prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii u vidkladakh naftohazonosnykh oblastei i metalohenichnykh provintsii: pryroda vuhilnoho metanu. Ugol Ukrainy, 8 (620), 42–46. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. (2013). Termobarometriia ta heokhimiia haziv prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii u vidkladakh naftohazonosnykh oblastei i metalohenichnykh provintsii: defekty v mineralakh – dzherelo informatsii pro protsesy mineraloutvorennia. Mineralohichnyi zbirnyk, 63 (2), 91–97. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. (2018). Vlastyvist hlybynnoho abiohennoho metanovmisnoho vysokotermobarnoho fliuidu utvoriuvaty vuhillia. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (176–177), 105–109. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, I. (2019). Pro novyi pidkhid do vyznachennia teplotvornosti pryrodnoho hazu, yakyi postachaiut spozhyvacham, ta yoho kubometrobarometriiu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2 (179), 84–89. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., & Davydenko, M. M. (1994). Sposib vyznachennia perspektyvy naftohazonosnosti lokalnoi ploshchi. Promyslova vlasnist. Ofitsiinyi biuleten, 4. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., & Davydenko, M. M. (1995). Termobarometriia i heokhimiia haziv prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii u vidkladakh naftohazonosnykh oblastei i metalohenichnykh provintsii. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 9, 72–73. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., Davydenko, M. M., Haievskyi, V. H., Krupskyi, Yu. Z., & Pelypchak, B. P. (1994). Perspektyvy termobarometrii i heokhimii haziv prozhylkovo-vkraplenoi mineralizatsii u vidkladakh naftohazonosnykh oblastei i metalohenichnykh provintsii (novyi naukovyi napriamok v heolohii). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (88–89), 54–63. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y. M., & Naumko, I. M. (2000). Nova tekhnolohiia vyznachennia henezysu vuhlevodnevykh haziv. In Nafta i haz Ukrainy (T. 1, s. 118). Ivano-Frankivsk: UNHA. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, I. M., & Naumko, I. M. (2003). Rol adiabaticheskikh yavleniy v protsessakh nakopleniya-kontsentratsii i prevrashcheniya uglevodorodsoderzhashchikh veshchestv v litosfere Zemli. In Novyye idei v naukakh o Zemle: Materialy VI Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii (Moskva. 8–12 aprelya 2003 g.) (T. 1. s. 257). Moskva. [in Russian]

Svoren, Y. M., & Naumko, I. M. (2006). Nova teoriia syntezu i henezysu pryrodnykh vuhlevodniv: abiohenno-biohennyi dualizm. Dopovidi NAN Ukrainy, 2, 111–116. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, Y., & Naumko, I. (2012). Boryslavske vuhlevodneve rodovyshche: problemy dlia rozdumiv. In Stan, problemy ta perspektyvy naftohazovoi promyslovosti Ukrainy: Zbirnyk tez dopovidei Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii (Lviv, 7–9 veresnia 2012 r.) (s. 16). Lviv: Vydavnytstvo Lvivskoi politekhniky. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren, I. M., Naumko, I. M., & Davydenko, M. M. (1998). Nova tekhnolohiia vyznachennia perspektyvy naftohazonosnosti lokalnoi ploshchi. In Nafta–Haz Ukrainy – 1998: Materialy V Mizhnarodnoi konferentsii (Poltava, 15–17 veresnia 1998 r.) (T. 1, s. 111–112). Poltava: UNHA. [in Ukrainian]

Svoren’, J. M., Naumko, І. М., Kovalyshyn, Z. I., Bratus’, M. D., & Davydenko, M. M. (1999). New technology of local forecast of enriched areas of gold ore fields. In Naukovi osnovy prohnozuvannia, poshukiv ta otsinky rodovyshch zolota: Materialy Mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii (Lviv, 27–30 veresnia 1999 r.) (s. 121–125). Lviv: Vydavnychyi tsentr LDU im. I. Franka.

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ON CONTENT, MIGRATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN OILS (by the example of the Dnieper-Donets Depression)

Home > Archive > No. 4 (181) 2019 > 96-103


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 4 (181) 2019, 96-103.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Artem Yerofieiev

V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University,
e-mail: pro100graf@gmail.com

Ihor Berezovsky

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Literature review and analysis of previous studies of the problem was carried. The main scientific works on the research topic, as well as the main directions and stages of the study are indicated. Similar studies that were conducted on the territory of Ukraine are considered.

The results of the study of heavy metals in oil samples taken from a large oil and gas region from more than thirty deposits of Ukraine are presented. All current and non-working fields are considered.

The geological structure of the oil and gas province, as well as the main geochemical features of the formation of mineral deposits are considered. The main forms of finding target metals, as well as possible ways of transferring these elements in the earth’s crust are given.

Samples were investigated using x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis. The obtained research data in the framework of two selected methods are combined for analysis. The results obtained within the same geological structure are compared with each other to determine the effect of the physical conditions of sediment formation on the microcomponent composition of crude oil. They also compared the effect of physical conditions on the properties of oil and their ability to accumulate heavy metals. Possible causes of the abnormal accumulation of heavy metals due to the close occurrence of oil and formation water are noted.

According to the results obtained, a graph is constructed of the dependence of the mineralization of oil on its depth. An exponential graphical approximation is presented to display the general trend of dependence.

Possible sources and ways of migration and accumulation of heavy metals in hydrocarbons are analyzed. The concept of the migration of heavy metals in oil is proposed in conjunction with the ore mineralization of adjacent and adjacent deposits.

Possible causes of differences in the concentrations of heavy metals in oil of various geological structures are indicated, as well as the main possible causes of measurement errors and complications in the selection of each of the analysis methods are specified.

Keywords

migration, heavy metals, petroleum, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, petroleum geochemistry, organometallic compounds.

REFERENCES

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Akpoveta, O. V., & Osakwe, S. A. (2014). Determination of Heavy Metal Contents in Refined Petroleum. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7 (6), 1–2.

Barwise, A. J. G. (1990). Role of nickel and vanadium in petroleum classification. Energy Fuels, 4 (6), 647–652.

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Lazarenko, E. K., Panov, B. S., & Pavlishin, V. I. (1975). Mineralogiya Donetskogo basseyna. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Madu, A. N., & Iwuoha, G. A. (2011). Extent of heavy metals in oil samples in escravos, Abiteye and Malu Platforms in Delta State Nigeria Njoku. Learning Publics Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Studies, 2 (2), 41–44.

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PECULIARITIES OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EARLY PALEOZOIC SEAWATER (study of fluid inclusions in halite of Ordovician Ordos salt basin, China)

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Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 4 (181) 2019, 78-95.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Anatoliy GALAMAY, Daria SYDOR

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Fanwei MENG

State Key Laboratory of Paleobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China,
e-mail: mengfanwei2004@hotmail.com

Yongsheng ZHANG

Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

Abstract

The fluid inclusions in the marine Middle Ordovician halite of the Majiagou Salt Formation of the Ordos Basin (China) have been investigated. In addition to the primary inclusions the secondary ones of several generations were also detected. The fluid inclusions brine chemistry of halite was studied using an ultramicrochemical (UMCA) method, and the homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions was determined in a special thermal chamber designed by V. A. Kalyuzhny

At the post-sedimentation stage, the studied salt strata were exposed to high temperature (58–72 °C) and high (up to several tens of MPa) pressure. Although there are opinions of the inability of primary inclusions in such halite to determine the physical and chemical conditions of sedimentation, however, the informative value of primary inclusions in halite of the Majiagou Formation has remained. The preservation of the integrity (and thus the informative value) of primary inclusions in halite is evidenced by the same chemistry of their brines, which differs from that of secondary inclusions The sedimentation brines of the basin were concentrated to the middle of halite stage and points to the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl seawater.

The physical and chemical conditions of evaporites formation are not known enough. Currently, the results of the brine chemistry of primary fluid inclusions in marine halite are the best indicators of seawater composition in the Phanerozoic. It is established that the magnesium content in the brines of the Lower Paleozoic basins is lower comparing to modern seawater of the corresponding concentration, and the potassium ion concentration is higher. The chemical composition of the concentrated seawater from which the halite was crystallized in the Ordovician salt basin of Ordos, with the exception of the calcium ion content, is similar to the seawater chemistry of the Cambrian and Silurian basins, which indicates the relative constancy of Early Paleozoic seawater chemistry.

Age-related changes in the chemical composition of seawater are always consistent with many quantitatively or qualitatively characterized processes of the Earth’s crust evolution. So we believe that the causes that led to more than twice the potassium content of Riphean-Devonian clays, unlike the younger ones, it were also the reason for the increase in potassium content in the Lower Paleozoic marine brines.

The studies conducted also clarify the limits of oscillation of calcium ion content, which determines the type of seawater. Its content in the sedimentary brines of the Ordos basin of the Middle Ordovician reaches 66 g/l at the middle of halite stage. Therefore, at the beginning of the stage of halite precipitation, its content should be approximately 20 g/l (considering its theoretical content of 10 g/l with the modern composition of the atmosphere). Apparently, the cause of the abnormally high calcium content in the early Paleozoic Ocean was the direct flow of it with hydrothermal solutions into the ocean during the activation of global tectonics of the Earth and the increase of solubility of carbonates of continents and ocean floor due to high carbon dioxide atmospheric content.

Keywords

halite, primary inclusions, homogenization temperature, seawater.

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