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SUBSTANDARD CARBON-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS AND METHODS OF THEIR THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSING

Home > Archive > No. 1–2 (183–184) 2021 > 89–109


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1–2 (183–184) 2021, 89–109.

https://doi.org/10.15407/ggcm2021.01-02.089

Dmytro BRYK, Myroslav PODOLSKYY, Yury KHOKHA, Oleksandr LYUBCHAK, Lesia KULCHYTSKA-ZHYHAYLO, Oleh GVOZDEVYCH

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: cencon@ukr.net

Abstract

The analysis of the structure of consumption of primary energy resources in the world and in Ukraine are carried out. It is shown that in recent decades the share of coal is stable at 25–30 % and does not show a tendency to decrease. Similar patterns are observed in Ukraine too. It is established that in Ukraine the energy potential of reserves of substandard carbon-containing raw materials is commensurate with the deposits of conditioned coal and can be used to increase the country’s energy security. At the same time, the deterioration of environmental indicators in the world and in Ukraine requires an increase in the level of environmental safety in the use of carbon-containing raw materials and appropriate environmental modernization of its thermochemical conversion methods.

The paper reviews the methods of thermochemical processing of substandard carbon-containing raw materials (pyrolysis and coking, hydrogenation, gasification) and shows that the gasification process, which allows processing of various substandard fuel resources in terrestrial and underground conditions, is the most promising for environmental safety use. It is shown that developed terrestrial gasification methods are characterized by insufficient productivity of gas generators, significant capital costs for their installation and negative impact on the environment. In addition, terrestrial processing of low-quality coal is not a waste-free technology and does not solve the problem of “secondary” gasification residues recycling . Some of these shortcomings can be eliminated by using the method of underground gasification, in which there is no need to extract coal to the surface, and secondary waste remains underground.

Keywords

energy resources, carbon-containing raw materials, coal, environmental conversion.

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TECHNOGENIC CARBONACEOUS OBJECTS OF THE CHERVONOHRAD MINING AND INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT AND SOME TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THEIR USING

Home > Archive > No. 4 (181) 2019 > 45-65


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 4 (181) 2019, 45-65.

https://doi.org/10.15407/ggcm2019.04.045

Dmytro Bryk, Oleg Gvozdevych, Lesya Kulchytska-Zhyhaylo, Myroslav Podolskyy

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Ukraine has significant coal resources. Chervonohrad Mining and Industrial District is the main coal complex in the west of Ukraine. In recent years, the average annual coal production in the mines of Chervonohrad Mining and Industrial District has amounted to 1.5 bn t, coal ash varies over a wide range of 25 to 53 %, average coal ash content of about 40 %. Coal mining has produced millions of tons of coal waste every year. Concentration of technogeneous coal objects (mines, mining infrastructure, coal-mining waste dumps and wastes of coal enrichment) in a relatively small area has caused environmental degradation. Therefore, technological and environmental aspects of carbon-containing technogenic objects are particularly important and actual.

Coal-waste dumps in the territory of Chervonohrad Mining and Industrial District are characterized in detail. The dumps cover different areas – from 9–10 to 29–30 ha, the height of the dumps reaches 62 m at the mostly heights of 25–40 m. The total waste deposit in the dumps of existing mines has a volume of more than 20 million m3.

The coal wastes from Mezhyrichanskaya mine coal-waste dump was investigated to determine the suitability for thermochemical processing. Technical characteristics of taken coal-waster samples is presented.

The technogenic carbonaceous objects and the impact to the environment are evaluated.

The developed and patented technical and technological solutions for the technogenic carbonaceous objects using are considered. It is shown that the concept of industrial development of coal wastes dumps is based on two aspects – extraction of valuable mineral components and energy utilization of carbonaceous wastes of coal production. Its patented as Patents of Ukraine technological schemes for terrestrial process in of solid carbonaceous raw material from dumps and sludges with the production of coal tar and synthesis gas CO + H2 are presented, as well as the scheme of a system for utilization of heat from coal dump.

Recommendations for the implementation of innovative technologies are based on the results of the laboratory research. The purpose of the resolution is to obtain valuable components and energy from coal wasters while improving the environment.

Keywords

coal, Chervonohrad Mining and Industrial District, coal-waste dumps, carbonaceous wastes, technological solutions, coal tar, synthesis gas.

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ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE OF TISSUES OF THE PLANT STEMS OF CARBONIFEROUS OF UKRAINE AND THEIR ROLE IN PEAT AND COAL FORMATION

Home > Archive > No. 3-4 (176-177) 2018 > 21-48


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 3-4 (176-177) 2018, 21-48.

Vasyl UZIYUK

Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, е-mail: coalgeol@franco.Lviv.ua

Abstract

Here the results of the determination of the intensity of compression of coaly rocks and coal-forming phytomass based on macroscopic geological comparative methods for different conditions of occurrence of remnants of organs of coal-forming plants as well as based on studies of the thin sections of different coal-forming tissues of phytoleims and petrifications by macropaleobotanic comparative and micropaleobotanic anatomical-morphological methods are described. The influence of the mineral composition of inorganic rocks, that compose the cores of the plant fragments or fill the hollowness of the cells of the plant tissues, and the intensity of their decomposition while peat- and coal-forming upon the intensity of phytomass compression is revealed.

Keywords

Carboniferous, plant, peat, coal, vitrain, phytomass, anatomy, peat and coal formation, compression, decomposition.

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