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GEOCHEMICAL PECULIARITIES OF NATURAL WATERS OF SE “SANATORIUM-RESORT MEDICAL CENTER “SHKLO” (LVIV REGION)

Home > Archive > No. 1 (178) 2019 > 74-82


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (178) 2019, 74-82.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Mariya KOST’, Halyna MEDVID, Vasyl HARASYMCHUK, Olha TELEGUZ, Iryna SAKHNYUK, Orysia MAJKUT

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

The geochemical features of natural waters of the SE “Sanatorium-resort medical center “Shklo” are established by researches of their ecological-geochemical composition and anthropogenic influence.
The mineral water “Naftusya-Shklo” from the pump room in the territory of the sanatorium is selected and analyzed, which is recognized as an analogous to water “Naftusya” by the biological action. The composition of water is hydrocarbonate sodium, having mine-ralization of 0.76 g/dm3, the total hardness of 0.55 mg-eq/dm3, sulfate content of 0.64 g/dm3, and Eh – −79 mV.
The sample of water from baths, which is fed from a depth of 129.0 m, is investigated. Therapeutic hydrogen sulfide water is classified as sodium salt-calcium sulfate with mineralization of 2.97 g/dm3 and high sulfate content (1.76 g/dm3). The balneological active component of the therapeutic water is hydrogen sulfide, the content of which is set at 101.75 mg/dm3. The common feature of these waters is the negative values of the oxidation-reduction potential, which is due to the presence of relatively high content of H2S and HS−.
In addition to the mineral, a sample of water from the water pipe (drinking water from the Opillia suite of the Lower Neogene) was studied. According to the salt composition, it refers to sulfate-hydrocarbonate sodium-calcium with mineralization of 0.53 g/dm3. The content of the determined macro- and microcomponents do not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations for drinking water, which indicates the absence of influence of the lower horizons.
The water sample was also selected from the largest lake of the park, the sanatorium “Shklo”, which is not related to reservoirs with a special regime of protection, therefore access to it is free. The salinity of water refers to chloride-sulfate-hydro carbonate sodium-calcium with mineralization of 0.35 g/dm3.
Two samples of water from the Shklo River after its leak from Yavoriv lake showed that these waters are weakly mineralized, weakly alkaline, calcium hydro carbonate sulfate or sulfate calcium. Quantitatively, sulfate ions are 2–3 times more than hydrocarbons. The content of sulfates, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium is also high, indicating their contamination. Further down the salt content decreases as a result of mixing with the water of droplets. Several sources of supply of sulfate-ion can be named: karst waters formed on gypsum anhydrite; reservoir waters of the Upper Badenian limestones, hydrogen sulfur of the formation waters of the Badenian horizon; hydrogensulfur, formed as a result of reduction of sulfate at the bottom of Yavoriv lake. Ecological and geochemical parameters of water of surface water reservoirs and watercourses generally also correspond to state standards for their use as recreational.

Keywords

drinking water, ecological-geochemical parameters, anthropogen influence.

REFERENCES

Babinets, A. E., Marus, V. I., Koynov, I. M. (1978). Mineralnyye i termalnyye vody Sovetskikh Karpat. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Derzhavne pidpryiemstvo “Sanatorno-kurortnyi likuvalnyi tsentr “Shklo”. (2018). Vziato z https://dsa.court.gov.ua/dsa/about_dsa/456/54675656. [in Ukrainian]

Haidin, A. M., Zozulia, I. I. (2007). Yavorivske ozero. Lviv: Afisha. [in Ukrainian]

Herenchuk, K. I. (Red.) (1972). Pryroda Lvivskoi oblasti. Lviv: Vyshcha shkola; Vydavnytstvo pry Lvivskomu universyteti. [in Ukrainian]

Hihiienichni vymohy do vody pytnoi, pryznachenoi dlia spozhyvannia liudynoiu. (2010). DSanPiN 2.2.4-171-10. Nakaz Ministerstva okhorony zdorovia Ukrainy № 400 vid 2010-05-12. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Ivanov, M. V. (1964). Rol mikrobiologicheskikh protsessov v genezise mestorozhdeniy samorodnoy sery. Moskva: Nauka. [in Russian]

Kyryliuk, D. H. (Head) (2013). Heoloho-ekonomichna otsinka zapasiv dilianky Shklivskoho rodovyshcha mineralnykh likuvalnykh pidzemnykh vod. Yavorivskyi raion Lvivskoi oblasti: zvit (63931) (Kn. 1).Kyiv: DNVP “HEOINFORM Ukrainy”. [in Ukrainian]

Pankiv, R. et al. (2009). Hidrokhimichna kharakterystyka transkordonnykh richok Yavorivshchyny. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2 (147), 84–89. [in Ukrainian]

Shtohryn, O. D., & Havrylenko, K. S. (1968). Pidzemni vody zakhidnykh oblastei Ukrainy. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

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PETROPHYSICAL MODELS OF TERRIGENOUS RESERVOIRS OF THE CARBONIFEROUS DEPOSITS OF THE CENTRAL PART OF THE DNIEPER-DONETS DEPRESSION

Home > Archive > No. 1 (178) 2019 > 63-73


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (178) 2019, 63-73.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Yulia LYSAK, Yuriy SHPOT, Andriy SHYRA, Zoriana KUCHER, Ihor KUROVETS

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, e-mail: y.shufliak@gmail.com

Abstract

The purpose of the work was to construct petrophysical models of reservoir rocks of different rank: typical and unified. Typical models describe connections between the parameters of individual rocks lithotypes occurring in definite geological conditions and serving as the basis for the development of petrophysical classification of reservoir rocks in the oil geology. The principle of unification provides for creation of the models structure for different reservoir lithotypes both in the geological section and in the area.

We have studied petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks of Carboniferous deposits in the central part of the Dnieper-Donets depression. Petrophysical properties of rocks in conditions close to the formational ones and relations between them were studied on a number of samples formed by the core samples of different age. Main geological factors that have an influence on reservoir properties of rocks were taken into consideration.

While constructing and analysing of petrophysical models we have used a probable-statistic approach with the use of the correlative-regressive analysis.

Result of the work is contained in typical petrophysical models for individual areas and in unified models obtained on consolidated samples for Lower Carboniferous deposits of this region. Characteristic features in variations of petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks of Carboniferous deposits and their models have been ascertained.

A conclusion has been made that multidimensional models, in which the depth of occurrence of deposits is one of the parameters that are necessary to consider while constructing petrophysical models, are the most informative for determination of petrophysical properties of the studied deposits, and the models obtained by us are known to be a petrophysical basis for quantitative interpretation of data from geophysical studies in the boreholes of the given region.

Keywords

petrophysical models, Dnieper-Donets depression, catagenetic processes.

REFERENCES

Atlas rodovyshch nafty i hazu Ukrainy. T. 1. Skhidnyi naftohazonosnyi rehion. (1998). Lviv: UHNA. [in Ukrainian]

Ellanskiy, M. M. (1978). Petrofizicheskiye svyazi i kompleksnaya interpretatsiya dannykh promyslovoy geofiziki. Moskva: Nedra. [in Russian]

Gurzhiy, D. V. et al. (1989). Litologiya i porody kollektory na bolshikh glubinakh v neftegazonosnykh provintsiyakh Ukrainy. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kabyshev, B. P. et al. (1989). Geologiya i neftegazonosnost Dneprovsko-Donetskoy vpadiny. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Kurovets, I. M. (2001). Stan i problemy vyvchennia petrofizychnykh vlastyvostei porid-kolektoriv nafty i hazu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2, 136–147. [in Ukrainian]

Kurovets, I. M., & Prytulka, H. Y. (2001). Otsinka vplyvu heolohichnykh faktoriv na petrofizychni vlastyvosti teryhennykh kolektoriv. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4, 81–92. [in Ukrainian]

Kurovets, I. M., Prytulka, H. Y., Zubko, O. S., & Sheremeta, O. V. (1999). Petrofizychna parametrychna osnova dlia pidrakhunku zapasiv hazu v sarmatskykh vidkladakh Bilche-Volytskoi zony Peredkarpatskoho prohynu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 4, 15–24. [in Ukrainian]

Petkevich, G. I., Sheremeta, O. V., & Pritulka, G. I. (1979). Metodika petrofizicheskogo izucheniya kollektorov nefti i gaza v usloviyakh. modeliruyushchikh plastovyye. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

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DETERMINATION OF GAS GENERATION CAPACITY OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS BITUMINOUS ARGILLITES BY JAYNES’ FORMALISM

Home > Archive > No. 1 (178) 2019 > 47-62


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (178) 2019, 47-62.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Yuri KHOKHA, Oleksandr LYUBCHAK, Myroslava YAKOVENKO

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

The analysis of literature was carried out and the main criteria for determining the gas generating potential of rocks were determined. These criteria are divided into two groups: the first one is geochemical, which includes the content of organic carbon and the thermal maturity of the rocks. The second group combines the geological and economic criteria that determine the suitability of rocks for the removal of hydrocarbon gases from them. In our opinion, the most important group of criteria should be considered a geochemical group.
Traditionally, to determine the ability of organic matter to form hydrocarbons, the Rock-Eval analysis was used. As a result, determined are the total organic carbon (TOC) and other parameters, such as hydrogen index (HI) or production index (PI).
In this paper, we are trying to expand the range of parameters that can be used to determine the gas generation potential of the rocks. The elemental composition of the organic matter dissipated in the rocks, in general terms, should affect on the composition and amount of hydrocarbons that they synthesize. To determine the influence of elemental composition on the gas-generating potential, equilibrium thermodynamics is used in conjunction with the Jaynes’ formalism.
Samples for investigation – bituminous argillites from Menilite suite of Oligocene, were taken from two fields of the Ukrainian Carpathians. For samples, the elemental composition of the organic matter and the mineral composition of the inorganic part (by X-ray crystallography) are determined. The data on the elemental composition came into the calculation, the result of which is the distribution of the additive components in the organic matter and the composition of gases.
The results of the calculations were compared with the results obtained by the Rock-Eval method. It was found that the calculation by the thermodynamic method gives understated results. On the other hand, it allows the establishment of a change in the chemical structure of organic matter of rocks. We are outlined ways to further improvement of the method.

Keywords

gas-generating potential, Jaynes’ formalism, equilibrium thermodynamic, dissipated organic matter.

REFERENCES

Behar, F., Roy, S., & Jarvie, D. (2010). Artificial maturation of a Type I kerogen in closed system: Mass balance and kinetic modelling. Organic Geochemistry, 41, 1235–1247

Diakonchuk, S. A., & Kuzmenko, T. M. (2015). Heolohichna kharakterystyka pokladiv netradytsiinykh typiv vuhlevodniv na osnovi 3D-modeliuvannia. Heodynamika, 2 (19), 26–33. [in Ukrainian]

Gabinet, M. P., Kulchitskiy, Ya. O., & Matkovskiy, O. I. (1976). Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye Ukrainskikh Karpat. (Ch. 1). Lvov: Vyshcha shkola. [in Russian]

Khokha, Yu. V. (2014). Termodynamika hlybynnykh vuhlevodniv u prohnozuvanni rehionalnoi naftohazonosnosti. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]

Khokha, Yu., Liubchak, O., & Yakovenko, M. (2018). Vplyv temperaturnoho rezhymu na hazoheneratsiinyi potentsial huminovykh kyslot orhanichnoi rechovyny. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (176–177), 49–63. [in Ukrainian]

Koltun, Y., Espitalié, J., Kotarba, M., Roure, F., Ellouz, N., & Kosakowski, P. (1998). Petroleum generation in the Ukrainian external Carpathians and the adjacent foreland. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 21 (3), 265–288.

Van Krevelen D. W., & Chermin H. A. G. (1951). Estimation of the free enthalpy (Gibbs free energy) of formation of organic compounds from group contributions. Chemical Engineering Science, 1 (2), 66–80.

Krupskyi, Yu. Z. (2001). Heodynamichni umovy formuvannia i naftohazonosnist Karpatskoho ta Volyno-Podilskoho rehioniv Ukrainy. Kyiv: UkrDHRI. [in Ukrainian]

Krupskyi, Yu. Z., Kurovets, I. M., & Senkovskyi, Yu. M. (2014). Zakhidnyi naftohazonosnyi rehion. In Netradytsiini dzherela vuhlevodniv Ukrainy (Kn. 2). Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr. [in Ukrainian]

Lebeha, O. V. (2017). Faktory ta heoloho-ekonomichni pokaznyky, shcho vyznachaiut tsinnist hazoslantsevykh rodovyshch. Ekonomichnyi analiz, 2 (27), 162–171. [in Ukrainian]

Liubchak, O. V., Khokha, Yu. V., & Yakovenko, M. B. (2018). Spivvidnoshennia strukturnykh elementiv vuhlevodnevoi skladovoi arhilitiv skhidnykh Karpat za formalizmom Dzheinsa. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni V. N. Karazina, seriia Heolohiia. Heohrafiia. Ekolohiia, 49, 15–23. [in Ukrainian]

Novak, J., Kozler, J., Janos, P., Cezıkova, J., Tokarova, V., & Madronova, L. (2001). Humic acids from coals of the North-Bohemian coal field: I. Preparation and characterisation. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 47, 101–109.

Tissot, B. P., & Welte, D. H. (1984). Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. Berlin; Heildelberg; New York; Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.

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QUANTITATIVE INDEX OF TOC CONTENT OF DIFFERENT AGE THICKNESSES OF TRANSCARPATHIAN DEPRESSION AS OIL GAS GENERATION ESTIMATION CRITERIA

Home > Archive > No. 1 (178) 2019 > 41-46


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (178) 2019, 41-46.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Andrii Andriiovych LOKTIEV

ТзОВ «Компанія «Геопошук ЛТД», смт Рожнятів, Івано-Франківська обл.,
e-mail: shon327@hotmail.com

Abstract

The Transcarpathian foredeep of Ukraine is a geological unit within the Carpathian folded structure, presented by Neogene molasses, which cover Pre-Neogene folded base.

Five deposits of combustible gas were discovered within the foredeep – Russko-Komarivske, Stanivske and Korolevskoye within the Mukachevo depression and Solotvino and Dibrovske fields within the Solotvino depression. Despite the fact that most domestic researchers adhere to the view of gas migration along deep tectonic faults into the sedimentary cover of the Transcarpathian foredeep, it is important to analyze the basin for favourable conditions for the generation of natural gases within the sedimentary cover.

Samples of core material, selected from 57 intervals of different age complexes of rocks from Transcarpathian wells for quantitative estimation of total organic carbon in rock, were analyzed in the department of sedimentary strata of IGGCM NASU. The results of the studies indicate the presence of rocks with low as well as good and even very good oil and gas potential for total organic carbon content, which are overwhelmingly related to the deposits of Pre-Neogene folded base. In general, a wide range of TOC content is established by the analysis. Rocks with TOC content of more than 1% are found both in rocks of the Pre-Neogene base (w. № 22-, 23-Solotvino, 1-Bushtinska, 1-Borodivsko-Novosilska), and in the molar thickness of the Neogene (St. No. 1-Velyko-Dobronska, 8-Tyachivska), which indicates sufficient content to generate hydrocarbons.

Further research aimed at determining the oil and gas potential will allow to determine the priority directions of oil and gas exploration within the Transcarpathian foredeep.

Keywords

gas, generation, migration, Transcarpathian foredeep, field, source rocks, TOC.

REFERENCES

Boiko, H. Yu. et al. (2003). Hlybynna heolohichna budova Karpatskoho rehionu. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 2, 12–22. [in Ukrainian]

Dembicki, Jr. H. (2009). Three common source rock evaluation errors made by geologist during prospect or play appraisals. AAPG Bulletin, 93, 341–356.

Dolenko, G. N. et al. (1980). Glubinnoye stroyeniye razvitiye i neftegazonosnost Ukrainskikh Karpat. Kiev: Naukova dumka. [in Russian]

Dolton, G. L. (2006). Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808) – Petroleum geology, total petroleum systems, and petroleum resource assessment. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 2204–B, 47 p.

Krupskyi, Yu., & Krupska, O. (2008). Vydilennia perspektyvnykh terytorii dlia poshuku rodovyshch zi znachnymy zapasamy vuhlevodniv u Zakhidnomu naftohazonosnomu rehioni. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1, 5–10. [in Ukrainian]

Misiura, Ya. B. (2008). Do pytannia naftohazonosnosti Zakarpatskoho neohenovoho prohynu. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats UkrDHRI, 1, 13–14. [in Ukrainian]

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GEOLOGICAL-GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF MIGRATION AND FORMATION OF GAS FIELDS IN OIL- AND GAS-BEARING REGIONS OF UKRAINE

Home > Archive > No. 1 (178) 2019 > 21-40


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 1 (178) 2019, 21-40.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Olesya SAVCHAK

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Geochemical composition of main components of natural gas has been analysed for three oil- and gas-bearing regions of the Ukraine, namely: Western (40 fields of the Precarpathian deep, 4 gas fields of the Transcarpathian deep and 2 gas fields located within the limits of the Lviv Paleozoic deep), Eastern (composition of natural gases at 12 fields) and Southern (analysis of data on chemical composition of natural gases from 8 fields in the water area of the deep and 13 fields on land).

Comparative analysis of the composition of natural hydrocarbons has been carried out within the limits of the Western region based on the main structural-tectonic elements of the region: outer and inner zones of the Precarpathian deep, the Transcarpathian deep and the Lviv Paleozoic deep; within the Eastern region – the Northern edge of the deep and the deep itself; within the Southern region – water area and land. On this basis the definite zonality of the distribution of hydrocarbon components of natural gases within the bounds of the oil-gas regions has been determined. Such different composition of gases testifies to independent sources of hydrocarbon supply and different duration of migration of the latter.

The analyses of the features of the distribution of the components of natural gas of main oil- and gas-bearing regions of the Ukraine and of the gas presence in the aggregate have enabled us to determine main aspects of the processes both of lateral and vertical migration of hydrocarbons.

Keywords

geochemical features, migration, hydrocarbons, Western, Eastern and Southern oil-gas regions of Ukraine.

REFERENCES

Atlas rodovyshch nafty i hazu Ukrainy. T. 4–5. Zakhidnyi naftohazonosnyi rehion. (1998). Lviv: UHNA. [in Ukrainian]

Pavliuk, M. I., Varichev, S. O., Rizun, B. P., & Savchak, O. Z. (2002). Naftohazonosni provintsii Ukrainy (heodynamichnyi aspekt). Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1, 3–12. [in Ukrainian]

Pavliuk, M. et al. (2008). Heodynamichni umovy formuvannia naftohazonosnykh provintsii Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3 (144), 16–25. [in Ukrainian]

Savchak, O. Z. (2003). Heokhimichni osoblyvosti naft i kondensativ Pivdennoho naftohazonosnoho rehionu Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4, 27–37. [in Ukrainian]

Savchak, O. Z. (2015). Heodynamichni aspekty roztashuvannia rodovyshch nafty i hazu naftohazonosnykh provintsii Ukrainy. In Heolohiia horiuchykh kopalyn: Materialy Mizhnar. nauk. konf. (Kyiv, 2–4 veresnia 2015 r.) (pp. 96–98). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Savchak, O. Z. (2017a). Heokhimichni aspekty protsesiv naftohazonahromadzhennia naftohazonosnykh rehioniv Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 1–2 (170–171), 154–156. [in Ukrainian]

Savchak, O. Z. (2017b). Heokhimichni aspekty protsesiv mihratsii ta akumuliatsii vuhlevodniv Skhidnoho naftohazonosnoho rehionu Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (172–173), 9–29. [in Ukrainian]

Savchak, O. Z. (2018). Heodynamichni ta heokhimichni aspekty naftohazonahromadzhennia Zakhidnoho naftohazonosnoho rehionu Ukrainy. Heolohiia i heokhimiia horiuchykh kopalyn, 3–4 (176–177), 5–20. [in Ukrainian]

Savchak, O. Z. (2019). Heoloho-heokhimichni osoblyvosti rozmishchennia rodovyshch nafty i hazu naftohazonosnykh provintsii Ukrainy. In Tezy dop. Nauk. konf., prysviachenoi 50-richchiu In-tu heokhimii, mineralohii ta rudoutvorennia im. M. P. Semenenka NAN Ukrainy (Kyiv, 14–16 travnia 2019 r.) (T. 2, pp. 82–84). Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

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OLISTOSTROME IN OLIGOCENE OF THE KROSNO (TURKA SUBNAPPE) AND THE DUKLYA-CHORNOHORA NAPPES OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

Home > Archive > No. 1 (178) 2019 > 5-20


Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 3 (180) 2019, 5-20.

цифровий ідентифікатор DOI цієї статті

Volodymyr SHLAPINSKYI, Myroslav Pavlyuk, Albert МEDVEDEV, Myroslav TERNAVSKY

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv,
e-mail: igggk@mail.lviv.ua

Abstract

Olistostrome horizons in the Oligocene deposits of the south-western part in the Bytlya-Svydovets subcover of the Krosno nappe or in so-called Pre-Duklya folds are described in a number of works. There is not enough information about olistostrome in the northern part of the Krosno nappe in its Turka subcover and in the outer part of the Duklya-Chornohora nappe (Stavniany subcover). In the mentioned tectonic units olistostrome is localized in the Lower Verkhovynian deposits of Oligocene above the marker bed of stripped limestones in the region of the Smozhe populated area of the Skole district of the Lviv Region, Torun and Lopushna of the Mizhgirria region of the Transcarpathian Region as well as near Lyuta Village of the same region. Matrix is mainly composed by the grey carbonate flysh of the Krosno lithotype. Olistostrome horizons are presented by strongly crumped chaotic non-sorted formations. In its composition also are present more ancient rocks than matrix, olistolites of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Oligocene age as well as redeposited rocks formed as a result of washout of more ancient deposits. Some geologists consider, according, to M. G. Leonov hypothesis (1978), that olistolites came off the front part of the Duklya nappe during its overthrusting to the north-east. Materials collected during geological surveys and later observations deny such a mechanism. This is proved by the following:

a) overthrust of the Duklya nappe couldn’t cause the formation of the Krosno olistostrome. Because olistostrome is also fixed in Oligocene of the Stavniany subcover of the given nappe of the Lyuta Village and the Mlaky ravine in the section of the Lyuta River.

 b) Olistostrome is traced at the strathigraphic level at a relatively narrow time interval. It means that sources of removal of olistolites were functioning not so long that contradicts the thesis on the permanent overthrusting movement.

c) If olistostrome was caused by the given overthrust, so it would (and olistolites) be observed continuously, but not discretely.

d) In sandstones of-the Lower Verkhovynian subsuite the presence of nummulites was fixed, and in argillites of Oligocene the microfauna of Cretaceous-Eocene age – this in the evidence of the washout event.

e) Over olistostrome are developed normal bedded high sections of-the Lower Verkhovynian subsuite, thus the overthrusting of the scales in Oligocene was absent.

f) In the composition of the Bytlya olistostrome are present rocks that are absent in the composition of Duklya-Chornohora nappe.

In the light of data mentioned above, the alternative thesis about cordillera as a source of removal of olistolites is rather grounded and non-alternative. It is possible that as sources of removal was a number of islands that were uplifted higher that sea level at the beginning of the Upper Verkhovynian time. In places the tongues of olistostromes into the Turka sub cove olistolites in the Smozhe and Torun Village possibly due to the presence of long alluvial fans. It is probable that cordillera occurred at the boundary between the Krosno and Dusynian basins of sedimentation that differed by the conditions of sediment forming that was manifested by the presence of two lithotypes of Oligocene of Krosno and Dusynian.

Keywords

Krosno, Duklya-Chornohora nappes, Bitlya-Svydovets, Turka, Stavnyany subnappes, Lower-Verkhovynian subsuite, olistrome horizons, cordillera.

REFERENCES

Dolenko, G. N. (1962). Geologiya nefti i gaza Karpat. Kiev: AN USSR. [in Russian]

Glushchenko, L. A. (1972). Geologicheskoye stroyeniye i podvodno-opolznevyye obrazovaniya yuzhnogo sklona Ukrainskikh Karpat v verkhoviakh Latoritsy i Riki. (Avtoref. dis. kand. geol.-min. nauk). Lvov. [in Russian]

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