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Home > Archive > No. 3–4 (191–192) 2023 > 105–121

Geology & Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals No. 3–4 (191–192) 2023, 105–121


Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine, e-mail:


Geological- and biological-paleogeographical conditions of sedimentogenesis within the Carpathian segment of Tethys ocean during Tithonian were considered. The rock-forming organisms with calcic function (flora and fauna), which compose main lithological types of carbonate rocks were identified.

On the base of biological-paleoceanographical and lithological investigation of different genetic types of Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks of the Outer zone of the Carpathian Foredeep and analysis of literature data on modern carbonate sediments, the structural classification of Late Jurassis epipelagic sediments of the Carpathian segment of the Meso-Tethys was made. In that classification pelitic, aleuritic, psammitic and ruditic fractions of sediments were distingnished.

Geological-paleogeographical model of occurrence of the Tithonian sediments within the Carpathian segment of the Meso-Tethys (the Outer zone of the Carpathian Foredeep) was built by the author. That model presents areals of biogenic and abiogenic epipelagic sediments and depicts their facial variations.

Geological-paleogeographical study of Upper Jurassic sediment complexes of epipelagic part of the Meso-Tethys has shown that they were formed within widespread interior shelf, probably, with small inclination of the sea bottom. In Upper Jurassic there was abundant growth of the benthos with calcic function and avalanchecal sedimentation of their skeletal remains took place with forming of biogenic carbonate sediments. The coral-algae biocoenosis there were biological indicators of considered parts of Tethys region. In modern basins of the World ocean analogous processes take place at the depths of about 50 m, in temperature conditions about 23–25 °C and the salinity of the sea waters about 2.7–3.8 ‰.

The manifestations of diagenetic and katagenetic processes in the Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks of Outer zone of the Carpathian Foredeep have been investigated and their influence of the formation of the reservoir properties of rocks has been found out.

During the diagenesis, the rocks were recrystallized, micritizated and cemented. From the mineralogical point of view, the changes consisted in the transformation of primary aragonite and magnesium-calcite skeletal remains of organisms into calcite, as well as processes of dolomitization, ferruginization and silicification. At the stage of diagenesis, Fe-containing minerals ̶ glauconite and pyrite ̶ has been formed. The dolomitization of Jurassic organogenic limestones of Outer zone of the Carpathian Foredeep has been caused by the mixing of the fresh meteoric waters with buried marine pore waters in the underground phreatic zone adjacent to the ancient coastline. Silicification is a consequence of the metasomatic substitution of the carbonate substance by silicate, which has been caused by decrease of the pH occurred after dolomitization.

Katagenetic transformation of the rocks are manifested in the dissolution of the remains of organisms, grains of carbonate cement and the late cementation of pores and microfractures. Changes of carbonate rocks are associated with the bringing of certain substances in the sediment (sulphatization, celestinization) or their removal (dedolomitization, decementation). Neoplasm minerals of the katagenesis stages are represented by anhydrite and celestine.

The proceses of recrystallization of carbonate rocks at different stages of katagenesis contributed to the selective leaching of limestones and dolomites and led to formation of secondary cavities and caverns, different in shape and size. The predominance of cavities of certain types determines the type of reservoir, among which are distinguished pores, pore-caverns and joint caverns. The processes of diagenesis and katagenesis are associated with the dissolution of carbonate material, which differently affects the reservoir properties of sediments. Authigenous mineral formation, with the exception of dolomitization, impairs the reservoir properties of the Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks, and recrystallization improves.

Burial of carbonate rocks at depth contributes to the preservation and even improvement of their reservoir properties both due to dissolution and textural heterogeneity (jointing develops at the boundary of the elements of textural heterogeneity). Observations show that the most favourable in this respect are organogenic and detrital varieties of carbonate rocks. The presence of clay minerals in the composition of their cement increases the textural heterogeneity and, as a consequence, the ability to formation of joints.


carbonate rocks, sedimentogenesis, diagenesis, katagenesis, reservoir properties, Upper Jurassic, Carpathian Foredeep


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